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The Atlanta Campaign Begins

Beginning on 1864/05/01 and ending 1864/05/06


On March 12, 1864. Ulysses S. Grant was placed in command of all armies of the United States. [1] This was the first time during the war that there was one commander in charge of all Federal forces and allowed for a "Grand Strategy". Several times during the war, when the Federal forces had taken the offensive, the Confederates had use its Railroads and to move troop from one area to the threaten area and been able to halt the Federal Advance. To counter this strategy, Grant, working with President Lincoln, developed a strategy to advance on five fronts at ones. With suzerainty in numbers as well as sullies, this was possible. What Grant was purposing was to "concentrate in time" to offset the Confederates ability to "concentrate in space." Grant, George G. Meade, and Benjamin Franklin Butler against Lee near Richmond; Franz Sigel in the Shenandoah Valley; Sherman to invade Georgia, defeat Joseph E. Johnston, and capture Atlanta; George Crook and William W. Averell to operate against railroad supply lines in West Virginia; and Nathaniel Banks to capture Mobile, Alabama. [2] [3]



 

 

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05/01/1864
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Historic Markers Across Georgia - Civil War in GA

The Atlanta Campaign Begins



The Atlanta Campaign


Referance: The Library of Congress Civil War Desk Reference
Synopsis
Date May 7 – September 2, 1864
Location Northwestern Georgia and around Atlanta
Result Union victory
Belligerents
Flag of Confederate States of America CSA (Confederacy)
Commanders
Joseph E. Johnston
Forces Engaged
Army of Tennessee
Casualties and losses
31,687 34,979

In his official report, dated September 15, 1864, General Sherman´s sums up the strength and disposition of the two armies:[4]


But on the 1st of May the effective strength of the several armies for offensive purposes was about as follows: Army of the Cumberland, Major-General Thomas commanding: Infantry, 54,568; artillery, 2,377; cavalry, 3,828; total, 60,773. Guns, 130.


Army of the Tennessee, Major-General McPherson commanding; Infantry, 22,437; artillery, 1,404; cavalry, 624; total, 24,465. Guns, 96.


Army of the Ohio, Major-General Schofield commanding: Infantry, 11,183; artillery, 679; cavalry, 1,697; total, 13,559. Guns, 28.


Grand aggregate: Troops, 98,797; guns, 254. About these figures have been maintained during the campaign, the number of men joining from furlough and hospitals about compensating for the loss in battle and from sickness.


These armies were grouped on the morning of May 6 as follows: That of the Cumberland at and near Ringgold; that of the Tennessee at Gordons Mills, on the Chickamauga; and that of the Ohio near Red Clay, on the Georgia line, north of Dalton.


The enemy lay in and about Dalton, superior to me in cavalry (Wheelers), and with three corps of infantry and artillery, viz : Hardees, Hoods, and Polks, the whole commanded by General Joe Johnston, of the Confederate Army. I estimated the cavalry under Wheeler at about 10,000, and the infantry and artillery about 45,000 to 50,000 men.


 



       
Major General William T. Sherman, May 1865.
Portrait by Mathew Brady.
        General Joseph E. Johnston
Photo taken between 1861 and 1865.

 

 

THE ATLANTA CAMPAIGN SUMMARY OF THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS
MAY 1-SEPTEMBER 8, 1864
O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXXVIII/1 [S# 72] pages 52-54

 

May 1, 1864
Skirmish at Stone Church.
May 2
Skirmish at Lee's Cross-Roads, near Tunnel Hill.
Skirmish near Ringgold Gap.
May 3, 1864
Skirmish at Catoosa Springs.
Skirmish at Red Clay.
Skirmish at Chickamauga Creek.
May 4, 1864
Maj. Gen. Frank P. Blair, jr., assumes command of the Seventeenth Army Corps
Skirmish on the Varnell's Station Road.
May 5, 1864
Skirmish near Tunnel Hill.
May 6-7, 1864
Skirmishes at Tunnel Hill.
GHM 023-3GHM 155-12GHM 155-25 &  155-24
May 7, 1864
Skirmish near Nickajack Gap.
May 8-11, 1864
Demonstration against Rocky Face Ridge, with combats at Buzzard Roost or Mill Creek Gap, and Dug Gap.
GHM 155-13DGHM 155-15GHM 155-14GHM 155-16 &  GHM 155-6
May 8-13, 1864
Demonstration against Resaca, with combats at Snake Creek Gap, Sugar Valley, and near Resaca.
May 9-13, 1864
Demonstration against Dalton, with combats near Varnell's Station (9th and 12th) and at Dalton (13th).
May 13, 1864
May 14-15, 1864
May 15, 1864
Skirmish near Rome.
May 16, 1864
Action at Rome (or Parker's) Cross-Roads.
GHM 064-18GHM 064-20
Skirmish at Floyd's Spring.
GHM 057-4 &  GHM 057-6
May 17, 1864
Engagement at Adairsville
GHM 064-1GHM 008-1 & GHM 064-2
Affair at Madison Station, Ala.
May 18, 1864
Skirmish at Pine Log Creek.
May 18-19, 1864
Combats near Kingston.
GHM 008-27GHM 008-31GHM 008-37GHM 057-3 &  GHM 008-30
May 20, 1864
Skirmish at Etowah River, near Cartersville.
May 23, 1864
Action at Stilesborough.
May 24, 1864
Skirmishes at Cass Station and Cassville. Skirmish at Burnt Hickory (or Huntsville).
Skirmish near Dallas.
May 25-June 5, 1864
Operations on the line of Pumpkin Vine Creek, with combats at New Hope Church, Pickett's Mills, and other points.
May 26-June 1, 1864
Combats at and about Dallas.
May 27, 1864
Skirmish at Pond Springs, Ala.
May 29, 1864
Action at Moulton, Ala.
June 9, 1864
Skirmishes near Big Shanty and near Stilesborough.
June 10, 1864
Skirmish at Calhoun.
June10-July 3, 1864
Operations about Marietta, with combats at Pine Hill, Lost Mountain, Brush Mountain, Gilgal Church, Noonday Creek, McAfee's Cross-Roads, Kenesaw Mountain, Powder Springs, Cheney's Farm, Kolb's Farm, Olley's Creek, Nicka-jack Creek, Noyes' Creek, and other points.
June 24, 1864
Action at La Fayette.
GHM 146-16
July 4, 1864
Skirmishes at Ruff's Mill, Neal Dow Station, and Rottenwood Creek.
July 5-17, 1864
Operations on the line of the Chattahoochee River, with skirmishes at Howell's, Turner's, and Pace's Ferries, Isham's Ford, and other points.
July 10-22, 1864
Rousseau's raid from Decatur, Ala., to the West Point and Montgomery Railroad, with skirmishes near Coosa River (13th), near Greenpoint and at Ten Island Ford (14th), near Auburn and near Chehaw (18th).
July 18, 1864
Skirmish at Buck Head.
General John B. Hood, C. S. Army, supersedes General Joseph E. Johnston in command of the Army of Tennessee.
Confederate Army Command Changed - GHM 060-3
July 19, l864
July 20, 1864
July 21, 1864
Engagement at Bald (or Leggett's) Hill.
GHM 044-42B GHM 044-66
July 22, 1864
Maj. Gen. John A. Logan, U.S. Army, succeeds Maj. Gen. James B. McPherson in command of the Army of the Tennessee.
July 22-24, 1864
Garrard's raid to Covington.
July 23, 1864
Brig. Gen. Morgan L. Smith, U.S. Army, in temporary command of the Fifteenth Army Corps.
July 23-Aug. 25, 1864
Operations about Atlanta, including battle of Ezra Church (July 28), assault at Utoy Creek (Aug. 6), and other combats.
July 24, 1864
Skirmish near Cartersville.
July 27, 1864
Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard, U.S. Army, assumes command of the Army of the Tennessee.
Maj. Gen. John A. Logan, U.S. Army, resumes command of the Fifteenth Army Corps.
Maj. Gen. David S. Stanley, U.S. Army, succeeds Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard in command of the Fourth Army Corps.
Brig. Gen. Alpheus S. Williams, U.S. Army, succeeds Maj. Gen.
Joseph Hooker in temporary command of the Twentieth Army Corps.
July 27-31, 1864
McCook's raid on the Atlanta and West Point and Macon and Western Railroads, with skirmishes near Campbellton (28th), near Lovejoy's Station (29th), at Clear Creek (30th), and action near Newnan (30th).
Garrard's raid to South River, with skirmishes at Snapfinger Creek (27th), Flat Rock Bridge and Lithonia (28th).
July 27-Aug. 6, 1864
Stoneman's raid to Macon, with combats at Macon and Clinton (July 30), Hillsborough (July 30-31), Mulberry Creek and Jug Tavern (August 8).
July 30, 1864
Maj. Gen. Henry W. Slocum, U.S. Army, assigned to the command of the Twentieth Army Corps.
Aug. 7, 1864
Brig. Gen. Richard W. Johnson, U.S. Army, succeeds Maj. Gen. John M. Palmer in temporary command of the Fourteenth Army Corps.
Aug. 9, 1864
Bvt. Maj. Gen. Jefferson C. Davis, U.S. Army, assigned to the command of the Fourteenth Army Corps.
Aug. 10-Sept. 9, 1864
Wheeler's raid to North Georgia and East Tennessee, with combats at Dalton (August 14-15) and other points.
Aug. 15, 1864
Skirmishes at Sandtown and Fairburn.
Aug. 18-22, 1864
Kilpatrick's raid from Sandtown to Lovejoy's Station, with combats at Camp Creek (18th), Red Oak (19th), Flint River (19th), Jonesborough (19th), and Lovejoy's Station (20th).
Aug. 22, 1864
Bvt. Maj. Gen. Jefferson C. Davis, U.S. Army, assumes command of the Fourteenth Army Corps
Aug. 26-Sept. 1, 1864
Operations at the Chattahoochee railroad bridge and at Pace's and Turner's Ferries, with skirmishes.
Aug. 27, 1864
Maj. Gen. Henry W. Slocum, U.S. Army, assumes command of the Twentieth Army Corps.
Aug. 29, 1864
Aug. 30, 1864
Skirmish near East Point.
Action at Flint River Bridge.
GHM 060-168 &  GHM 031-16
Aug. 31, 1864
Skirmish near Rough and Ready Station.
GHM 060-168GHM 060-166GHM 031-33GHM 031-2 & GHM 031-5
Aug. 31-Sept. 1, 1864
Sept. 2, 1864
Sept. 2-5, 1864
Actions at Lovejoy's Station.

 

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References

  1. Ulysses S. Grant home page   [Online] http://www.granthomepage.com/grantlincoln.htm
  2. Wikipedia - Ulysses S. Grant - General in Chief and strategy for victory   [Online] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulysses_S._Grant#General-in-Chief_and_strategy_for_victory
  3. Wikipedia - Ulysses S. Grant - General in Chief and strategy for victory   [McMurry, Richard M. Atlanta 1864 - Last chance for the Confederacy, University of Nebraska Press, 2000, pp 13
  4. THE WAR OF THE REBELLION: OFFICAL RECORDS OF THE UNION AND CONFEDERATE ARMIES; Published under the direction of the Secretary of War. Washington: Government Printing Office; 1890-91. Series I, Volume 38, Part 1, O.R. 1, pp 62-63

 

 

Links to Civil War Historic Markers Across Georgia.

 

Atlanta Campaign Ringgold Gap May 7, 1864.
Catoosa Springs Confederate Hospitals
Historic Red Clay
Ringgold Gap November 27, 1863