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Civil War Historic Markers Across Georgia

The Civil War in Georgia as told by its historic markers.

 



The early Years - 1863

Beginning on 1863/01/01 and ending 1863/12/31


On January 1, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln issued an executive order known as the Emancipation Proclamation, freeing all slaves in he ten states that had succeeded from the United Sates (Confederate States).


In 1863, Union Naval forces make several unsuccessful attempt to capture Fort McAllister guarding the southern approach to Savannah. In June, Union forces under command of Colonel James Montgomery seize St. Simons Island. They destroy the of Darien and many plantations in the area.


With the fall of Vicksburg, MS, on July 4, 1863, Col. Lemuel P. Grant is ordered to construct a line of defensive works around Atlanta, GA. This line of fortifications is completed on October 30.


In June of 1863, Maj. Gen. William Rosecrans began moving against the Confederates in Tennessee. After a series if skirmishes, the Army of Tennessee commanded by Gen. Braxton Bragg, falls back to Chattanooga, TN. The confederates expect Gen. Rosecrans to attack the city from the north. To reinforce this believe, Gen. Roscrans sends Colonel John T. Wilder with his mounted infantry up the Sequatchie Valley and over Walden's Ridge while the bulk of his army moves west into Alabama before turning east and crossing the Tennessee River on a wide front well below Chattanooga. Once Bragg learns that he has been outflanked and his supply lines are threatened, he abandons Chattanooga and falls back to the vicinity of LaFayette, GA. The two armies will fight a major battle at Chickamauga Creek on September 19th and 20th, 1863. The Battle of Chickamauga was the most significant Union defeat in the Western Theater and involved the second highest number of casualties in the war following the Battle of Gettysburg. The Union forces fall back to Chattanooga, TN.


The Confederate forces surround Chattanooga and lay siege to the city. In November, Union forces under the command of Gen. Ulysses S. Grant drive the confederate forces from the top of Lookout Mountain and the next day the union forces break the confederate line holding Missionary Ridge and the Army of Tennessee withdraws to Dalton, GA. Maj. Gen. Patrick Cleburne rear guard action at Ringgold Gap, GA. allows the bulk of the confederate forces with their supplies to withdraw.



 

 

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01/01/1863
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Historic Markers Across Georgia - Civil War in GA

Georgia in 1863


Event affecting Georgia during 1863[1]

January 1, 1863

Emancipation Proclamation - On September 22, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln issues and executive order declaring the freedom of all slaves in any state of the state of the Confederate States of America that did not return to Union control by January 1, 1863. On January 1, 1863, he issues a second executive order naming ten specific states where it would apply. Lincoln issued the Executive Order by his authority as "Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy" under Article II, section 2 of the United States Constitution.[6]

January 19, 1863

William Tatum Wofford promoted to Brigadier General.

February 16, 1863

The CSS Chattahoochee, a twin-screw steam powered gunboat built in Saffold, Georgia (Early County, just north of the Florida-Georgia state line) enters service.

February 18, 1863

Cornerstone laid for the Macon Armory.

February 28, 1863

Confederate ship "Nashville" sunk in the Ogeechee River by Union ironclad USS Montauk.

March 4, 1863

Robert Toombs (July 2, 1810 - December 15, 1885) resigns his commission in the Confederate Army.

March 25, 1863

Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton presents the first Medals of Honor to six participants of the Great Locomotive Chase (known in the North as Andrew's Raid).

May 2, 1863

Union forces under Col. Abel D. Streight attempt to raid Rome, GA. John H. Wisdom rides from Gadsden, Al, and warns the Confederates in Rome of the impending raid. The citizens of Rome fortify the bridge over the Oostanaula River thus allowing the pursing Confederate forces under the command of Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest with only 425 men, to capture Col. Streight and his 1,500 men. [2]

May 27, 1863

The boiler on the CSS Chattahoochee explodes while plowing the waters near the coast of Georgia. She is taken to the shipyard in Columbus, where she is eventually scuttled.

June 10, 1863

Union troops under the command of James Montgomery (December 22, 1814 - December 6, 1871) seize St. Simons Island.[3]

June 11, 1863

Union troops on St. Simons Island loot and destroy Christ Church Frederica, the city of St. Simons, many of the plantations and burn Darien, GA.[4] [5]

July 1, 1863

Battle of Gettysburg, PA.

July 4, 1863

Federal forces under the command of Ulysses S. Grant capture Vicksburg, MS.

July 7, 1863

General Braxton Bragg entered Chattanooga, TN, with most of the Confederate Army of Tennessee.

August 4, 1863

Col. Lemuel P. Grant reports that the construction of the fortifications around Atlanta has begun. [8]

August 21, 1863

Col. John T. Wilder's brigade of the Union 4th Division begin shelling Chattanooga, TN.

August 21, 1863

The Army of the Cumberland commanded by Major General William S. Rosecrans, cross the Tennessee River well west and south of Chattanooga. When General Braxton Bragg learns that the Union army was in force southwest of the city, he abandons Chattanooga.

Sept. 9, 1863

Confederate forces under the command of Gen James Longstreet leave Virginia to reinforce the Army of Tennessee in north Georgia. Traveling over 16 railroads on a 775-mile route through the Carolinas, the Forward echelons of Longstreet's Corps begins arriving on September 17, in time to take part in the Battle of Chickamauga. [7]

Sept. 19-20, 1863

Battle of Chickamauga.

October 8, 1863

Confederate President Jefferson Davis arrives in Atlanta.

October 9, 1863

Jeff Davis addresses a crowd at Marietta, GA

October 10, 1863

Jeff Davis tours Army of Tennessee lines in North Georgia.

October 12, 1863

At the request of Braxton Bragg, Jeff Davis approves relieving Daniel Harvey Hill of command. James Longstreet is detached and others who disagree with Bragg are reassigned.

October 14, 1863

Jefferson Davis returns to Atlanta, then leaves heading west.

October 29, 1863

Returning from the western states of the Confederacy, President Davis arrives in Atlanta.

October 30, 1863

Jeff Davis stops in Macon, GA, briefly addressing a crowd.

October 30, 1863

Defensive perimeter around Atlanta, built by Col. Lemuel Grant, is completed.

October 31, 1863

Jeff Davis begins a short stay in Savannah, GA.

Nov. 27, 1863

Concerned with the 10 deaths a day at a prison camp in Richmond (Belle Isle), the medical director recommends that another prisoner of war camp be established.

Nov. 27, 1863

Battle of Ringgold Gap.

December 21, 1863

Sidney Winder orders construction to begin on Camp Sumter near Andersonville, Georgia.






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References

  1. Our Georgia History - Georgia History Timeline / Chronology 1863  [Online]
    http://ourgeorgiahistory.com/year/1863
  2. Georgia Historical Commission marker 057-1.  Located on Myrtle Hill Cemetery, at the intersection of Broad Street and Myrtle St. Rome, GA.
    Georgia's Paul Revere - GHM 057-1

    The Ride of John Henry Wisdom to Save Rome, Georgia  [Online]
    http://hometownchronicles.com/al/etowah/vert-Wisdom_and_Rome_1863.htm
  3. Georgia Historical Society marker 95-2.   at City Hall, 1 block E. of US 17, Darien, McIntosh Co., GA.
    The Burning of Darien - GHS 95-2
  4. Georgia Historical Society marker 95-2.   at City Hall, 1 block E. of US 17, Darien, McIntosh Co., GA.
    The Burning of Darien - GHS 95-2
  5. Georgia Historical Commission marker 095-7.  Located on Wayne Street at Vernon Square, Darien, McIntosh Co., GA.
    Saint Andrew's Episcopal Church - GHM 095-7
  6. Wikipedia - Emancipation Proclamation  [Online]
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emancipation_proclamation
  7. Our Georgia History - Georgia History Timeline / Chronology for September 1863  [Online]
    http://blueandgraytrail.com/year/186309
    Wikipedia - James Longstreet  [Online]
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Longstreet
  8. Garrett, Franklin M. Atlanta and Environs - A Chronicle of Its People and Events - Volume 1; University of Georgia Press, Athens; ©1954, Pg 567-568
    Wikipedia - Lemuel Pratt Grant  [Online]
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lemuel_P._Grant

 

 

Links to Civil War Historic Markers Across Georgia.

 

1836 Methodists At Darien
Actions at Ringold
African American Pioneers of the Marsh-Warthen-Clements House
Alpine Georgia
Anderson Campsite
Bailey's Crossroads
Battle of Chickamauga 9 mi.
Bird's Mill and Worthen's Gap
Brown's Spring
C.S.S. Nashville
Catlett's Gap
Chattooga Academy
Clarissa Hunt Plantation and Confederate Courier Grave
Clark Lee
Cole Plantation and Academy
Columbiad
Confederate Battery
Confederate Breakthrough
Confederate Hospitals
Confederates Cross the Creek
Crawfish Spring
Crittenden's Corp at Lee and Gordon's Mills
Cureton Plantation
Damage From Naval Bombardments
Davis Crossroads Battle Site
Defense of Snodgrass Hill
Destruction of the C.S.S. Nashville
Empire State Iron Works
First Skirmish at Chickamauga
Forrest's Pursuit
Forrest's Pursuit
Fort McAllister The Naval Bombardments
General Joe Wheeler's Attack
General Johnston Headquarters
Georgia's Paul Revere
Glass's Mill Battle Site
Henderson Plantation
Hot Shot Furnace
In the Confederacy
Johnson's Crook
LaFayette Road
Lee and Gordon's Mill
Leet's Spring & Tanyard
Machinery From the C.S.S. Nashville
Macon Iron Works
Major Gallie's Gun
Major John B. Gallie
Marsh-Warthen House c. 1836
Millie Henderson Grave
Mix up in the Union Command
Murphy's Hollow Spring
Neal's Gap, Broomtown Road
Obstruction of River
Old Richmond Academy Building
Old Stone Presbyterian Church War Time Hospital
Olde Greenfield Church and Historic Cemetery (Side 1)
Owing's Ford and Childress Plantation
Payne's [Sitton's] Mill
Peavine Church
Position of the Monitors
Ringgold Gap November 27, 1863
Rock Springs Church
Rossville Gap
Rossville, McFarland House & Spring
Route of Night March of Thomas' Corps
Route of the Union Right
Saint Andrew's Episcopal Church
Sinking of the CSS 'Nashville (Rattlesnake)'
Site of Wayside Home
Skirmish at McLemore's Cove - Bragg Sees an Opportunity, September 9-11, 1863
Skirmish at McLemore's Cove - Confederate Plan of Attack, September 9 - 10, 1863
Skirmish at McLemore's Cove - Opportunity Lost, September 10-11, 1863
Stephen's Gap
Stone Church and Catoosa Station
Stone Depot - TBI
Summerville, Georgia
Summerville, Georgia
The Xzanders G. McFarland House and McFarland Gap
The Armies Engage
The Army of the Tennessee
The Battle of Chickamauga, September 19 -- 20, 1863
The Bloody First Day
The Burning of Darien
The cost of Chickamauga
The Evans House
The Redding House
The second day begins
The Whitman House
Thomas' Night March
Tom Cat
Trenton
Trion Factory (North)
Trion Factory (South)
Valley Store, Broomtown Rd.
Walker County
War comes to the Brotherton's
Western & Atlantic Depot
Wilder's defense
William Little House
Worthen's Gap