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Civil War Historic Markers Across Georgia

The Civil War in Georgia as told by its historic markers.

 



The early Years - 1862

Beginning on 1862/01/01 and ending 1862/04/12


Between February 21 and April 9, 1862, Federal troops under Gen. Quincy A. Gillmore erected 36 guns in 11 batteries, extending eastwardly on Tybee Island from Lazeretto [sic] Creek opposite Fort Pulaski. Two of the Federal batteries consisted of rifled cannon. On April 10, the Union Batteries on Tybee Island opened fire on Fort Pulaski. After a continuous bombardment of 30 hours the walls of Fort Pulaski were breached and the Fort was surrendered. On April 12, Capt. Jas. J. Andrews, with twenty volunteers commandeered the locomotive "The General" at Big Shanty (Kennesaw) purpose of the capture was to destroy the bridges on the Western & Atlantic R.R., and thereby cut off the Confederate Army from its base supplies. Conductor W.A. Fuller accompanied by Engineer Jeff Cain and Anthony Murphy, Foreman of the W. & A. Shops gave chase. The pursuit then was at such a rapid pace, that serious damage to the railroad by the Raiders was impossible. The "General" was abandoned by the Raiders on account of lack of fuel and the close pursuit of Conductor Fuller and his party.


By early 1862 Atlanta was becoming one an important workshops of the Confederacy. Along with many private enterprises, several government works were setup for the production of such items as railroad cars, belt buckles, buttons, spurs, saddles, canteens, tents, revolvers, bowie knives, cannon, gun carriages, cartridges, etc. The Atlanta Rolling Mill began rolling heavy plates to cover gunboats for the Confederate Navy, including the plating for its famous ironclad, Merrimac. [22] In May of 1862, Atlanta became a Military Post under the command of G. W. Lee. [23]


 

 

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Historic Markers Across Georgia - Civil War in GA

Events impacting Georgia in 1862


Events impacting Georgia in 1862[1]

February 6, 1862

Union forces under Brig. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant captures Fort Henry in North West Tennessee. The surrender of Fort Henry opened the Tennessee River to Union traffic past the Alabama border.

February 11 - February 16, 1862

Battle of Fort Donelson - On February 12-13. Union forces under Brig. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant move to Fort Donelson and surround the fort. A Confederate attemp to break out on February 15 failed. During the early morning hours of February 15, the confederates decide to surrender, at which time Nathan Bedford Forrest leads the 700 men under his command towards Nashville. Later that day Grant demands “unconditional and immediate surrender” of the fort, the Confederate compile.

February 23, 1862

General Johnston evacuated Nashville, TN, on February 23, giving this important industrial center to the Union, the first Confederate state capital to fall. On March 2, Columbus, KY, was evacuated. Most of Tennessee now fell under Union control, as did all of Kentucky, although both were subject to periodic Confederate raiding.

March 4, 1862

Patrick Ronayne Cleburne promoted to Brigadier General.

April 6, 1862

During The Battle of Shiloh, Union forces capture the "Ladies Defender", a muzzle loading cannon cast in Columbus, GA, in 1861.[13]

April 10, 1862

Bombardment of Ft. Pulaski begins from Tybee Island.

April 11, 1862

Fort Pulaski surrenders.

April 12, 1862

The Great Locomotive Chase.

May 9, 1862

Major General David Hunter, US Army, orders the emancipation of slaves in Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina, and authorized the arming of all able-bodied negroes in those States.[16][17]

May 17, 1862

Union soldiers from Tybee Island and Fort Pulaski attempt to land near Savannah (Thunderbolt). They are driven back.

May, 1862

Trial begins for James Andrews on charges of spying.[18]

May, 1862

Atlanta becomes a Military post commanded by Col. G. W. Lee.[19]

May 31, 1862

Death warrant issued for James Andrews.

May 31, 1862

General Joseph E. Johnston is wounded during The Battle of Fair Oaks (Seven Pines) in VA.[2]

June 2, 1862

Union spy James Andrews (The Great Locomotive Chase) escapes an Chattanooga city jail. He is captured the following day.

June 7, 1862

James Andrews (The Great Locomotive Chase) is hung in Atlanta at the present-day intersection of Juniper and Third Street.[3] His body is buried nearby, but later exhumed and moved to the National Cemetery at Chattanooga.

June 18, 1862

Six of Andrew's Raiders are hung at Memorial Drive and Park Avenue, Atlanta. The six where Sgt. Maj. Marion A. Ross (Medal of Honor), Pvt. Samuel Robertson (Medal of Honor), Sgt. John Morehead Scott, Pvt. Samuel Slavens, Pvt. George Davenport Wilson and Pvt. Charles Perry Shadrack.[4]

June 27, 1862

Col. Burton, CSA, goes to Atlanat to select a place for the Confederate Armory.[20]

July 1, 1862

Battle of Malvern Hill is fought in VA. The confederates loses total 5,355.[5] During the battle John Bell Hood [CS] and George Pickett [CS] breakthrough Fitz John Porter's [US] line, forcing Union troops south of the Chickahominy River and severing McClellan's supply line to Eltham's Landing (White House, West Point).[6]

June 1 & 29, 1862

Fort McAllister, on the Ogeechee River in Southeast GA., is shelled by Union gunboats.[14]

August 12, 1862

Atlanta is declared to be under martial law. Travel to and from the city is restricted and controlled.

August 28 - 30, 1862

The Battle of Second Manassas is fought in VA. General John B. Hood commands the Texas Brigade during the battle.[7] The 18th Georgia Volunteer Infantry servers with distiction in the Battle of of Second Manassas.[8]

September 12, 1862

Allison Nelson is commissioned Brig. Gen. in the Confederate Army, he served until his death near Austin, Lonoke Co., Arkansas, on Oct. 7, 1862.[15]

September 17, 1862

The Battle of Sharpsburg (Antietam) is fought near Sharpsburg, Maryland. Brig. Gen. John Bell Hood commands one of the divisions that is part of the First Corps, under Maj. Gen. James Longstreet. Nine offices from Georgia is action during the battle and once again The 18th Georgia Volunteer Infantry servers with distiction in the Battle of of Second Manassas.[9][10]

October 8, 1862

Battle of Perryville, KY - Braxton Bragg's Army of Mississippi wins a tactical victory against primarily a single corps of Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell's Union Army of the Ohio. The battle is considered a strategic Union victory, sometimes called the Battle for Kentucky, because Bragg withdrew to Tennessee soon thereafter, leaving the critical border state of Kentucky in Union hands for the remainder of the war.[11]

October 9, 1862

James Longstreet promoted to lieutenant general.

October 16, 1862

Eight of Andrew's Raiders escape from Fulton County jail, eventually reaching Union lines Fulton County, Georgia.

November 1, 1862

John B. Gordon commissioned Brigadier General, CSA.

November 17, 1862

Gustavus W. Smith selected Secretary of War ad-interim, Confederate States of America.

November 21, 1862

James Siddon replaces G. W. Smith as Secretary of War.

December 13, 1862

General T. R. R. Cobb dies during the Battle of Fredericksburg, Fredericksburg, Virginia.

December 26, 1862

William S. Rosecrans begins an advance on Murfreesboro, TN, from Nashville.

December 26, 1862

In response to a smallpox epidemic, Atlanta City Council order construction of a smallpox hospital.

December 31, 1862

Battle of Stone's River (1st day) is fought in Middle Tennessee. The Battle of Stones River had the highest percentage of casualties on both sides. The results of the battle are inconclusive. The Confederates forces under the command of Braxton Bragg's withdrawal and cede control of Middle Tennessee to the Union forces commanded by William Rosecrans.[12]



When Atlanta was made a military post in May of 1862, the following General Order was issued to all of its citizens.

"HEAD-QUARTERS
MILITARY POST, ATLANTA
May 14, 1862
GENERAL ORDER NO. 1

In obedience to orders received, from Brig-Gen., A. R. Lawton, Commanding Military Division of Georgia, in assuming command of this Post for the purpose of guarding the Government stores, to preserve order in and around Atlanta, and for the protection of all loyal citizens, and the punishment of all disorderly conduct, the following regulations will be strictly observed:


1. Details will be made daily to protect the Government stores and property, and guards will be posted at different points in the city for that purpose; also a scouting guard day and night to preserve order, acting in concert with the city authorities.


2. Sentinels will be posted on each Railroad train to examine and arrest all suspicious persons pointed out to them, and to make this order effective, Superintendents of Railroads are requested to instruct Conductors to cooperate with the Sentinels for this purpose.


3. Owners of all Cotton, Hay, or other combustible material, are required without delay to remove the same to such points of safety -- distant from Government stores-as may be designated by the Commanding Officer of this Post.


4. Any Grocer or other person selling to or furnishing any officer or soldier with spirits or wine, which is prohibited, unless upon the order of an Army Surgeon, will be arrested and dealt with by the proper military authorities.


5. All officers, soldiers, or citizens found drunk, or otherwise disorderly in the streets, will be taken in charge by the guard and sent to these headquarters.


6. No officers or soldiers will be allowed to remain in and around Atlanta, unless such officers or soldiers be furnished with a permit from their respective commanders. And all commanders of troops stopping over in Atlanta will report the fact to the officer commanding this post.


7. No slave or free person of color will be allowed to walk the streets after the hour of nine o'clock, P.M., either with or without a pass, unless accompanied by his or her owner.



The officer commanding earnestly invites the aid and co-operation of his Honor, the Mayor, and City Authorities, and all citizens, in preserving good order and sobriety in the city, and specially requests of all persons to report to him any improper conduct on the part of any of the officers or soldiers under his command.



By order of

G. W. Lee
Col. Commanding

Lieut. John C. Hendrix, A. Adjutant"[21]



For more information visit



References

  1. Our Georgia History - Georgia History Timeline / Chronology 1862  [Online]
    http://ourgeorgiahistory.com/year/1862
  2. Wikipedia - Battle of Seven Pines  [Online]
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Seven_Pines
  3. Georgia Historical Commission marker 060-197.  Located at Juniper and Third Streets, Atlanta, GA.
    James J. Andrews - GHM 060-197
  4. Wikipedia - Great Locomotive Chase - Raiders  [Online]
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Locomotive_Chase#Raiders
  5. Wikipedia - Battle of Malvern Hill  [Online]
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Malvern_Hill
  6. Georgia's Blue and Gray Trail - Seven Day Retreat  [Online]
    http://blueandgraytrail.com/event/Seven_Days_Retreat
  7. Answers.com - John Bell Hood  [Online]
    http://www.answers.com/topic/john-bell-hood
  8. Wikipedia - 18th Georgia Volunteer Infantry  [Online]
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/18th_Georgia_Volunteer_Infantry
  9. Wikipedia - Battle of Antietam  [Online]
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Sharpsburg
  10. Wikipedia - 18th Georgia Volunteer Infantry  [Online]
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/18th_Georgia_Volunteer_Infantry
  11. Wikipedia - Battle of Perryville  [Online]
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Perryville
  12. Wikipedia - Battle of Stones River  [Online]
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Stones_River
  13. Georgia Historical Commission marker 106-20.  Located at the Courthouse in Columbus, GA.
    Ladies Defender - GHM 106-20
  14. Georgia Historical Commission marker 015-4.  Located at Fort McAllister, GA.
    Fort McAllister The Naval Bombardments - GHM 015-4
  15. Georgia Historical Commission marker 060-150.  Located on Ga 139 1\4 mile east of the Chattahoochee River, Fulton Co., GA.
    Birthplace of Allison Nelson - GHM 060-150
  16. Timeline of Georgia History  
    Timeline of Georgia History - 1862
  17. Georgia Historical Society 25-32  The History of Emancipation
    The History of Emancipation
  18. The war of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies; Series 2 - Volume 5, 1899, U.S. Government Printing Office  On-line
    The war of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies; Series 2 - Volume 5, 1899, U.S. Government Printing Office
  19. Garrett, Franklin M. Atlanta and Environs - A Chronicle of Its People and Events - Volume 1; University of Georgia Press, Athens; ©1954, Pg 525
  20. Garrett, Franklin M. Atlanta and Environs - A Chronicle of Its People and Events - Volume 1; University of Georgia Press, Athens; ©1954, Pg 525
  21. Garrett, Franklin M. Atlanta and Environs - A Chronicle of Its People and Events - Volume 1; University of Georgia Press, Athens; ©1954, Pg 526
    Daily Intelligencer, May 23, 1862, et seq.
  22. Garrett, Franklin M. Atlanta and Environs - A Chronicle of Its People and Events - Volume 1; University of Georgia Press, Athens; ©1954, Pg 532
    Mitchell, "Atlanta, Industrial Heart, Confederacy." 20-27; Pioneer Citizens´' History, 116
  23. Garrett, Franklin M. Atlanta and Environs - A Chronicle of Its People and Events - Volume 1; University of Georgia Press, Athens; ©1954, Pg 525

 

 

Links to Civil War Historic Markers Across Georgia.

 

Battery Hamilton
Big Shanty Spring
Confederate Powder Works
Federal Batteries on Tybee Island
Fort Pulaski
General
Ladies Defender
Locomotive "General"
Madison Square
Mark Anthony Cooper's Iron Works
Morrow, Georgia
Rome Railroad
The Andrews Raid
The Andrews Raiders at Kingston
The General
The Great Locomotive Chase
The Railroad
William A. Fuller