Tozeur is located in south west Tunisia and is the capital of the Tozeur Governorate. The town has existed since ancient times and was an important Roman outpost. Tozeur is a large oasis with hundreds of thousands of Date palm trees. The largest part of the local economy are dates and farming. Tourism is heavily developed and promoted, Tozeur is considered a center of “desert tourism”. Toseur is served by the Tozeur–Nefta International Airport. In 2008, the population was 34,943.
◊ History of Tozeur, Tunisia
◊ History of Tunisia
◊ Weather data for Tozeur, Tunisia
◊ Historic Weather Events for Tunisia
History of Tozeur, Tunisia
- Tusuros is used by caravans to transportation productes thru the Sahara.
- Tozeur is an important Roman outpost.
- 13th century: An open surface canal system is designed by the famous engineer Ibn Chabbat. The system of channels, canals, and dams which he devised to supply the ten square kilometer oasis with all of its water are still in use in 2004.
- 1285, June 17: Ibn Chabbat dies in Tozeur.
- 1909, Feb 24: Aboul-Qacem Echebbi is born in Tozeur. His poetry is known and respected throughout the Arab world for its elegant style and powerful words.
- 1996: Tozeur is used as a filming location for some scenes in the movie The English Patient (film).
- 1997: Mos Espa was built outside the city of Tozeur and used as a filming location for Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace.
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History of Tunisia
I am still doing research on this history of the Tunisia.
- 814 BC: Carthage was founded on the eastern side of Lake Tunis by Phoenician traders.
(SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T5)
- 586 BC: The Jewish Ghriba synagogue on the island of Djerba, Tunisia, was later said to date to about this time. The first Jews who arrived were said to have brought a stone from the ancient temple of Jerusalem that was destroyed by the Babylonians.
- 300 BC: Carthago Nova (Cartagena, Spain) had coins minted in the Greek style. One face bears the image of Melqart, chief god of Tyre, the other face shows a horse and palm tree, emblems of Carthage.
(NG, Aug., 1974, S.W. Matthews, p.171)
- 264 BC: Rome initiated the Punic Wars with Carthage, an oligarchic empire that stretched from the northern coast of Africa to the Strait of Gibralter. The primary cause was the Carthaginian expansion into the Greek cities of Sicily. Carthage was forced to surrender its control over the western region of Sicily and this marked the end of the first Punic War. The three Punic Wars: 264-241 BC, 218-202 BC, 149-146 BC, also known as the Carthaginian Wars, finally resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Roman control of the western Mediterranean.
(eawc, p.14)(HNQ, 8//00)
- 262 BC: War broke out between Carthage and Rome. Three long wars lasted till 146 BC when Carthage was destroyed by Rome.
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.167-8)
- 261 BC: Rome captured a Punic quinquereme. In two months they copied it plank by plank and built 100 like it and eventually the Roman fleet was able to defeat the Carthaginians.
(NG, Aug., 1974, p.178)
- 256 BCE The Carthaginian city of Kerouane was sacked by the Romans.
(NG, 8/04, p.48)
- 250-150 BC: Punic wars between Rome and Carthage.
- 241 BC, Mar 10: The Battle of Aegusa in which the Roman fleet sank 50 Carthaginian ships occurred.
- 218 BC: The Romans renewed their efforts against Carthage as Carthage expanded into Spain. This
2nd Punic War lasted 16 years after which Carthage was forced to surrender al of its territory to Rome except for its capital city in North Africa.
- 217 BC, Jun 21: Carthaginian forces led by Hannibal Barca destroyed a Roman army under Consul Gaius Flaminius in a Battle of Lake Trasimene in central Italy. Hannibal of Carthage attacked Roman Consul Flaminio at Tuoro on Lake Trasimeno in Umbria. Hannibal's army of Numidians, Berbers, Libya, Gascons, and Iberians was down to one elephant after crossing the Alps with 39. His army of 40,000 drove the Romans into the lake where 15,000 died as opposed to 1,500 of Hannibal's men. Two nearby towns were named Ossaia (boneyard) and Sanguineto (bloodied).
(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.37)(HN, 6/21/98)
- 217 BC: During the Second Punic War Rome appointed Quintus Fabius Maximus as dictator to stave off Hannibal's Carthaginian army.
(ON, 9/05, p.6)
- 216 BC, Aug 2: Hannibal Barca [of Carthage] won his greatest victory over the Romans at Battle of Cannae. Hannibal seized a grain depot in the small village of Cannae in order to lure the Romans to battle. Having crossed over the Alps, Hannibal's forces defeated the Romans at the Battle of the Trebia and also at Battle of Lake Trasimene. Thereafter, the Romans were unwilling to commit a large force to attacking Hannibal. However, Hannibal's spies had learned two Roman consuls shared command of the legions and attempted to goad the more impetuous of the two into battle at Cannae.
(HN, 8/2/98)(HNQ, 11/16/00)
- 206 BC: Rome destroyed Carthaginian forces at the Battle of Metaurus in northern Italy.
(ON, 9/05, p.7)
- 206 BC: Scipio Africanus of Rome defeats Carthaginian forces at the Battle of Ilipa. 
- 204 BC-202 BC: Greece and most of Asia Minor came under the control of the Romans after the Roman victory over Carthage in the 2nd Punic War.
(WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A7)(ON, 9/05, p.7)
- 203 BC: Hannibal Barca and his army returned home to defend Carthage against Roman forces.
(ON, 9/05, p.7)
- 202 BC, Oct. 19: Roman forces under Scipio Africanus defeated Hannibal Barca of Carthage on the Plains of Zama in northern Tunisia.
(NG, 8/04, p.44)(www2.cs.uh.edu/~clifton/hannibal.html)
- 149 BC-146 BC: Rome and Carthage fought the Third Punic War that resulted in the total defeat of Carthage. Roman forces breached the walls of Carthage. All inhabitants of Carthage were sold into slavery and the city was burned to the ground and the land was sown with salt. As a result of the Punic wars Rome expanded its empire to cover Spain, North Africa, Greece, Asia Minor and Egypt's.
(eawc, p.15)(HNQ, 8/9/00) (NG, Aug., 1974, p.174)(NG, 8/04, p.46)
- 31 BC: Rome under Emperor Augustus (23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) annexed the Carthage territory.
(SSFC, 12/10/00, p.T8)
- 162: The Antonine Baths were completed in Carthage after 17 years of construction.
(SSFC, 12/10/00, p.T8)
- 230: A Roman coliseum was built in the town of El Jem that could hold 30,000.
(SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T5)(AP, 10/19/98)
- 230: Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus (anglicized as Tertullian), early Christian apologist, died. He was a church leader and prolific author of Early Christianity. Tertullian was born about 150 and lived and died in Carthage (later Tunisia).
- 439, Oct 9: Ancient city of Carthage was captured by Gaiseric the Vandal.
- 439, Oct 19: The Vandals, led by King Gaiseric, took Carthage and quickly conquered all the coastal lands of Algeria and Tunisia. Egypt's and the Libya coast remained in Roman hands.
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.168)(HN, 10/19/98)
- 632-661: The Rashidun Caliphate, also known as the Rightly Guided Caliphate, comprising the first four caliphs in Islam's history, was founded after Muhammad's death. At its height, the Caliphate extended from the Arabian Peninsula, to the Levant, Caucasus and North Africa in the west, to the Iranian highlands and Central Asia in the east. It was the one of the largest empires in history up until that time.
- 902, Aug 1: The Aghlabid, rulers of Ifriqiyah, (modern day Tunisia) captured Taormina, Sicily.
- 1091: A trading deal was made between Mahdiyah, near Tunis, and Genoa.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)
- c1200-1300: Sidi Bou Said was a 13th century Sufi holy man. A town 12 miles from Tunis, the town of Sidi Bou Said was named after him. It was closed to non-Muslims until the 1820s.
(SSFC, 8/4/02, p.C12)
- 1332, May 27: Ibn Khaldun (d.1406), Berber historian, was born in Tunis. He was also a social scientist and political activist and developed theories on economics and politics. He authored the “Muqaddimah” (introduction to history), that gave an in-depth analysis of the cyclical nature of the rise, maturation and decline of political regimes and economies. “Only tribes held together by a group feeling can survive in a desert.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibn_Khaldun)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)(Econ, 1/28/12, p.68)
1500 - 1699
1700 - 1899
- 1518: Algiers and Tunis, Barbary states in North Africa, were founded.
- 1530s: Khayr Ad-Din (c. 1478 – July 4, 1546) known by the European name Barbarossa, meaning Redbeard, united Algeriaand Tunisia as military states under the Ottoman caliphate. He was a Barbary pirate and later as admiral of the Ottoman fleet.
- 1534, Aug 20: Turkish admiral Chaireddin (Khair ad-Din) “Barbarossa” occupied Tunis.
(MC, 8/20/02)(PC, 1992, p.178)
- 1535: Holy Roman Emperor Charles V led a naval expedition to Tunis against Barbarossa. The foray proved successful, but Barbarossa escaped and continued to fight.
(WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A11)
- 1546: Barbarossa, one of the great figures in the court at Istanbul, died. Khayr Ad-Din was a Barbary pirate and later, as admiral of the Ottoman fleet, he united Algeriaand Tunisia as military states under the Ottoman caliphate in the 1530s.
- 1554: Dragut, leader of the Mediterranean pirates, recaptured Mehedia, Tunisia, from the Spaniards.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.18)
- 1600s: Tunisia becomes part of the Turkish Ottoman empire, but has a high degree of autonomy.
- 1655, Apr 4: Battle at Postage Farina, Tunis: English fleet deates Barbary pirates.
- 1655, Apr 28: English admiral Robert Blake (27 September 1598 - 7 August 1657) beat a Tunisian pirate fleet.
1900 - 2009
- 1795: In Tripoli Pasha Yusuf Karamanli deposed his older brother Hamet in a bloodless coup.
(ON, 10/06, p.8)
- 1798, Mar 26: Tunis, under the rule of Bey Hamuda Pasha, signed the Treaty of Tripoli (the treaty of peace and friendship) with the US following negotiations with William Eaton. The American Revolutionary War veteran had been recently appointed consul to the North African kingdom.
(ON, 10/06, p.7)
- 1800, Jan 10: The US Senate ratified the Treaty of Tripoli with Tunis.
(ON, 10/06, p.7)
- 1801, May 10 - 1805 June 1805: First Barbary War; , Yusuf Karamanli, the Pasha (or Bashaw) of Tripoli, demanded a tribute of $225,000 from the United States. Present Jefferson refused the demand and the Pashe declared war on the US by cutting down the flagstaff in front of the U.S. Consulate. Algiers and Tunis did not follow their ally in Tripoli. 
- 1815, June 17 - June 19: Second Barbary War; The war brought an end to the American practice of paying tribute to the pirate states and helped mark the beginning of the end of piracy and enslaving the crews for high ransoms in that region, which had been rampant in the days of Ottoman domination (16th-18th centuries).
- 1815, Aug 5: A peace treaty with Tripoli, which followed treaties with Algeria(Jun 30) and Tunis (Aug 28), brought an end to the Barbary Wars. Commodores Stephen Decatur (January 5, 1779 - March 22, 1820) and William Bainbridge (May 7, 1774 – July 27, 1833) had conducted successful operations against the Barbary States of Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli.
(HN, 8/5/98)(WSJ, 10/9/01, p.A22)(ON, 10/06, p.10)
- 1881, May 12: The Treaty of Bardo established Tunis [Tunisia] as a French protectorate. The French withdrew their forces after signing the treaty. The terms of the agreement gave France responsibility for the defense and foreign policy decisions of Tunisia. Henceforth, Tunis became a French protectorate from 1881 until 1956.
- 1890: The Cathedral of St. Louis was built in a suburb north of Tunis.
(SSFC, 12/10/00, p.T8)
2010 - 2015
- 1902, January 30: Japan signs the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. The alliance was renewed and extended in scope in 1905 and 1911, before its demise in 1921. It was officially terminated in 1923.
- 1903, Aug 3: Habib Bourguiba (d.2000), 1st president of Tunis and independence leader, was born in Monastir. Some said the papers were doctored and that he was born earlier.
(SFC, 4/7/00, p.D5)
- 1914 - 1920 The First World War. [More Information]
- Allied (Entente) Powers
France, British Empire, Russia (1914-17), Italy (1915-18), United States (1917-18), Romania (1916-18), Japan, Serbia, Belgium, Greece (1917-18) and others
- Central Powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria (1915-18)
- 1914, October 17 - November 7: The Siege of Tsingtao.
- 1917, April 6: The US declares war on Germany.
- 1918, March 3: Russia and Germany sign an armistice at Brest-Litovsk.
- 1918, November 11: Armistice Day. At the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month, Germany signs an armistice with the Allies. The war is officially over. More than 8.5 million have been killed and over twice as many wounded from across the globe. New technology has been created, America has risen to prominence as an economic power and new countries are forming in Europe and the Middle East.
- 1923, Sept 29: The British Mandate for Palestine, created by the Covenant of the League of Nations. The formal objective of the League of Nations Mandate system was to administer parts of the defunct Ottoman Empire, which had been in control of the Middle East since the 16th century, “until such time as they are able to stand alone.” The mandate document formalised the creation of two British protectorates: Palestine, to include a national home for the Jewish people, under direct British rule, and Transjordan, an Emirate governed semi-autonomously from Britain, under the rule of the Hashemite family.
- 1935, March 2:Habib Bourguiba founded the Neo-Destour nationalist movement dedicated to end French colonial rule.
(SFC, 4/7/00, p.D5)
- 1934 Sep 3, Tunisia began its move for independence.
- 1939: Bahi Ladgham was arrested and sentenced to prison for plotting against the state's security.
(SFC, 4/16/98, p.B4)
- 1931, September 18, Japan invades Manchuria.
- 1935, October 3; The Second Italo-Abyssinian War. Italian armed forces from Eritrea invaded Ethiopia without a declaration of war. In response Ethiopia declares war on Italy. On October 7, the League of Nations declared Italy to be the aggressor, and started the slow process of imposing limited sanctions on Italy.
- 1935: The Soviet Union declares that the fascist states of Germany and Japan are the enemies.
- 1938, Apr 9: In Tunisia French troops cracked down on nationalist-inspired rioting in Tunis. 122 Tunisians were killed by French troops. Tunisians remembered this as Martyr's Day.
- 1939 - 1945 World War II. [More Information]
- Axis powers (Germany, Italy, Japan, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria) versus Allies (U.S., Britain, France, USSR, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Greece, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, South Africa, Yugoslavia).
- 1939: Germany invades Poland.
- 1941, December 7: Japan attacks Pearl Harbor.
- 1942, Nov: German troops arrived in Tunisia. The nation was home to some 100,000 Jews at the time. The Germans imposed anti-Semitic policies that included fines, forcing Jews to wear Star of David badges and confiscating property. More than 5,000 Jews were sent to forced labor camps, where 46 are known to have died. About 160 Tunisian Jews in France were sent to European death camps.
- 1943, Jan 22: Axis forces pulled out of Tripoli for Tunisia, and destroyed bases as they left.
- 1943, Feb 13: There was a German assault on Sidi Bou Zid, Tunisia, as Gen. Eisenhower visited the front.
- 1943, Feb 14: A German offensive was made through the de Faid pass in Tunisia.
- 1943, Feb 15: The Germans broke the U.S. lines at the Fanid-Sened Sector in Tunisia.
- 1943, Feb 16: Withdrawing Afrika Korps reached the Mareth-line in North Africa.
- 1943, Feb 18: Rommel (the Desert Fox)i>, took three towns in Tunisia, North Africa. The intercepted communications of an American in Cairo provided a secret ear for the Desert Fox.
- 1943, Feb 19: German tanks under Brig. Gen. Buelowius attacked Kasserine Pass, a 2 mi (3.2 km) wide gap in the Grand Dorsal chain of the Atlas Mountains in Tunisia.
- 1943, Feb 20: German troops of the Afrika Korps broke through the Kasserine Pass, defeating the U.S Army's II Corps commanded by Major General Lloyd Fredendall, and the British 6th Armoured Division commanded by Major-General Charles Keightley (HN, 2/20/99) 
- 1943, Feb 21: German tanks and two infantry battalions broke the Allied line and took Kasserine Pass in North Africa. The Afrika Korps assault aroup began moving along the Hatab River valley towards Haidra and Tebessa in the early afternoon and advanced until they met defenders consisting of the US 1st Infantry Division's 16th Infantry Regiment and Combat Command B of the US 1st Armored Division at Djebel el Hamra. The German-Italian force was halted and despite heavy pressure, including air attacks, failed to dislodge the American defenders.
- 1943, Feb 23: German troops pulled back through the Kasserine Pass in Tunisia.
- 1943, Feb 25: U.S. troops retook the Kasserine Pass in Tunisia, where they had been defeated five days before.
- 1943 Feb 26, The German assault moved to Beja, North Tunisia.
- 1943, Mar 6: Battle at Medenine, North-Africa: Rommel's assault attack.
- 1943, Mar 10: Hitler called Rommel back from Tunisia in North Africa.
- 1943, Mar 18: American forces took Gafsa in Tunisia.
- 1943, Mar 21: British 8th army opened an assault on Mareth Line, Tunisia.
- 1943 Mar 23, Germans counter attacked US lines in Tunisia.
- 1943, Mar 27: US began an assault on Fondouk-pass, Tunisia.
- 1943, Apr 19-20: Lance Sgt. Haane Manahi (28 September 1913 – 29 March 1986) of New Zealand performed gallant actions against overwhelming odds in the bloody battle for Takrouna, a fortified citadel in Tunisia, North Africa. In 2007 the Maori trooper was posthumously honored he 64 years after he was denied a top gallantry award despite a commendation signed by four commanding generals.
- 1943, Apr 22: There was German counter attack in North Tunisia.
- 1943, May 6: British 1st army opened an assault on Tunis.
- 1943, May 7: The last major German strongholds in North Africa, Tunis and Bizerte, fell to Allied forces.
- 1943, May 9: The German 5th Panzer army surrendered in Tunisia.
- 1943, May 11: Hermann Goering division in Tunisia surrendered.
- 1943, May 12: Axis forces in Tunisia and all of North Africa surrendered.
(AP, 5/12/97)(HN, 5/12/98)
- 1943, May 20: French, British and US held a victory parade in Tunis, Tunisia.
- 1943: In Tunisia Khaled Abdelwahhab (March 1, 1911–1997) hid a group of Jews on his farm outside Mahdia, saving them from the Nazi troops occupying the North African nation. In 2007 Abdelwahhab became the first Arab to be nominated for recognition as “Righteous Among the Nations,” an honor bestowed on non-Jews who risked their lives to save Jews from Nazi persecution.
- 1945, April 12: President Franklin D. Roosevelt dies at Warm Springs, Georgia.
- 1945, May 8: Victory in Europe, V-E Day.
- 1945, September 2: Victory over Japan, V-J Day Japanese sign surrender terms aboard battleship Missouri (BB-63).
- 1945; The United Nations develops a plan for a trusteeship administration of the Korean Peninsula. The Soviet Union administering the peninsula north of the 38th parallel and the United States administering the south.
- 1947, Nov 29: The United Nations General Assembly recommended the adoption and implementation of the Partition Plan for Mandatory Palestine creating the State of Israel.
- 1950 - 1953; The Korean War is fought in Korea.
1953, May: Reports claimed that 200 young Muslims tried to invade the Jewish quarter and had provoked an Arab-Jewish riot. Bahi Ladgham challenged the French authorities to permit an int'l. investigation.
(SFC, 4/16/98, p.B4)
- 1953-1973: Bahi Ladgham (d.1998 at 85) was secretary general of the Neo-Destour Party, dedicated to independence.
(SFC, 4/16/98, p.B4)
- 1956, Mar 20: Tunisia was granted independence by France. Tunisia became an independent nation under the leadership of Habib Bourguiba, a Francophone lawyer. He launched a campaign advocating birth control. By 2003 the fertility rate plunged from 7.2 in the 1960s to 2.08. Bourguiba created a paternalistic and monopolistic ruling party that continued for 3 decades.
(WUD, 1994, p.1685)(EWH, 1968, p.1247)(SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T5)(SFC, 4/16/98, p.B4)(WSJ, 8/8/03, p.A1)(Econ, 1/22/11, p.31)
- 1957, Mar 30: Tunisia and Morocco signed a friendship treaty in Rabat.
- 1957, Jul 25: The monarchy in Tunisia was abolished in favor of a republic. Habib Bourguiba (1903-2000) began serving as president and continued to 1987.
- 1958: Iraq's Prime minister Fadhel al-Jamali (1903-1997) was sentenced to death after a military coup. He was freed after Morocco interceded and he later became an advisor to Pres. Habib Bourguiba who granted him citizenship.
(SFC, 5/27/97, p.A22)
- 1959, Nov 8: Tunisian Pres. Habib Bourguiba's Nes Destour party won every chair.
- 1961: Tunisia says French forces must leave their base in Bizerte. Fighting breaks out. France pulls out of Bizerte in 1963, after long-running talks.
- 1966: Tunisia legalized abortion.
(WSJ, 8/7/03, p.A5)
- 1969-1970: Bahi Ladgham served as premier.
(SFC, 4/16/98, p.B4)
- 1970, Sep 27: A cease-fire accord was signed in Cairo between the Jordanian army and Palestinian guerrillas by King Hussein and Yasser Arafat brokered by the Arab peace committee headed by Bahi Ladgham of Tunisia.
(SFC, 4/16/98, p.B4)(http://tinyurl.com/6e3v9s)
- 1970, Nov: Hedy Nouri succeeded Bahi Ladgham as premier.
(SFC, 4/16/98, p.B4)
- 1971: Habib Bourguiba was the first Arab leader to publicly advocate mutual recognition with Israel.
(SFC, 4/7/00, p.D5)
- 1977, Sep 10: Convicted murderer Hamida Djandoubi, a Tunisian immigrant, became the last person to date to be executed by the guillotine in France.
(SFEC, 2/9/97, Z1 p.6)(AP, 9/10/97)
- 1981: First multi-party parliamentary elections since independence. President Bourguiba's party wins by a landslide.
- 1981: In Tunisia radical preacher Rached Ghannouchi and other intellectuals, inspired by Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood, founded the Islamic Tendency Movement, which denounced violence and endorsed pluralism and democracy. He was accused of fomenting unrest and sentenced to 10 years in prison. In 1987 he was sentenced to life behind bars with hard labor under the regime of Habib Bourguiba.
- 1982, Aug 30: Palestinian Liberation Organization left Beirut, Lebanon, and moved to Tunis, Tunisia.
(SFC, 11/11/04, p.A18)
- 1985, Aug 21: Tunisia expelled 253 Libya in apparent retaliation for Libya's expulsion of over 20,000 Tunisian workers in recent weeks.
- 1985, Oct 1: Israeli forces staged an air raid on PLO-headquarter at Tunis and 68 people were killed. Yasser Arafat narrowly escaped death.
(WSJ, 11/12/04, p.A11)
- 1987, Nov 7: Zine El Abidine Ben Ali became president of Tunisia after doctors declared Habib Bourguiba (84) medically unfit to govern. Mr. Ben Ali led a peaceful coup that ended the 30 year rule of Habib Bourguiba. “The Tunisians are Sunni Muslims and deny polygamy, admit abortion, and abjure the veil.”
(SFC, 5/6/96, p.A-4)(WSJ, 6/22/95, p.A-5)(SFC, 10/28/99, p.A13)
- 1988, Apr 16: Abu Jihad, [Khalil al-Wazzir], PLO-leader, was murdered by Israeli assassins in Tunisia. They left the chief strategist of the Palestinian uprising with 170 bullets in his body. The Palestine Liberation Organization accused Israel of assassinating al-Wazir, a top PLO military figure. Palestinians reacted angrily, and at least 14 were shot and killed by Israeli troops during clashes in the occupied Gaza Strip and West Bank. In 2012 Israel admitted responsibility for the killing of Abu Jihad.
(AP, 4/16/98)(AP, 1/22/06)(AP, 11/1/12)
- 1988, Dec 15: U.S. Ambassador Robert H. Pelletreau Jr. telephoned the PLO's headquarters in Tunisia, one day after President Reagan authorized direct talks.
- 1989: Tunisia held elections which were heavily falsified. An Islamist-backed coalition still managed to win 17 percent of the vote. Islamist leader Rached Ghannouchi fled to Algeria. Hundreds of Islamist activists who stayed behind were thrown into prison, often on flimsy charges. In 1991 Ghannouchi moved to Britain.
- 1989: The Arab Maghreb Union was created to encourage free trade between Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia. It failed to hold summit meetings after 1994.
(Econ, 5/29/10, p.50)
- 1989: Ben Ali wins presidential elections. He goes on to be re-elected four more times, the last time in 2009.
- 1991: In Tunisia military officers allegedly held secret meetings with a view to toppling Ben Ali. The case became known as the “Bakaret Essahel affair”, named after a village 45 km (28 miles) south of Tunis. The officers involved were tortured.
- 1992: Tunisia's Pres. Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali banned the Islamist Ennahda party.
- 1994: Tunisia held its first multiparty parliamentary elections.
(SFC, 10/28/99, p.A13)
- 1996: The population of Tunisia was about 9 million.
(SFC, 5/6/96, p.A-1,4)
- 1998: The Tunisian film “Honey and Ashes” opened in the US.
(SFEC, 10/4/98, DB p.53)
- 1999: Mar 26, Hillary Clinton continued her 12-day African tour with a speech in Tunis at a women's rights conference.
(SFC, 3/27/99, p.C1)
- 1999, Oct 25: In Tunisia Pres. Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali won a 3rd term in office with over 99% of the vote. It was the nation's first multiparty presidential vote.
(SFC, 10/26/99, p.B2)
- 1999: Algeria, Libya and Tunisia agreed to share the northwest Sahara aquifer system (NWSAS).
(Econ, 10/9/10, p.87)(http://tinyurl.com/25w5boa)
- 2000, Apr 6: Habib Bourguiba former president and independence leader, died at age 96.
(SFC, 4/7/00, p.D5)
- 2000, Jan 19: Bettino Craxi (65), former 2-term Italian premier, died in Tunisia. He had fled Italy in 1994 to escape a corruption jail sentence.
(WSJ, 1/20/00, p.A1)(Econ, 1/9/10, p.53)
- 2002, Apr 11:, In Tunisia a gas tanker truck crashed into the wall of a El Ghriba synagogue on the island of Djerba and killed 14 Germans, 6 Tunisians and a Frenchman. The government at first called it an accident. Later evidence indicated that it was an act of terrorism. Nizar Nawar (24), a Tunisian citizen who had studied in Canada, was the driver. Al Qaeda later claimed responsibility. In 2006 a Spanish court sentenced two men to a total of 10 years in prison for their part in a suicide bombing. In 2006 Nawar's uncle, Belgacem Nawar (44), was convicted in Tunis and sentenced to years in prison for aiding in the attack.
(SFC, 4/17/02, p.A8)(SFC, 4/24/02, p.A7)(WSJ, 5/2/02, p.A13)(SSFC, 5/19/02, p.A3)(WSJ, 8/20/02, p.A1)(AP, 5/10/06)(SFC, 6/8/06, p.A3)
- 2002, May: President Ben Ali wins a referendum on constitutional changes, paving the way for his fourth term.
- 2002, May 7: An Egypt's Air Boeing 737 with 62 people crashed in bad weather near Tunis. 18 were reported dead.
(SFC, 5/8/02, p.A15)
- 2002, Jun 17: It was reported that fundamentalist Tunisian Jews on Djerba Island were exempt from the country's mandatory secular education. The numbered about a 1,000.
(WSJ, 6/17/02, p.A16)
- 2002, Jun 21: Eleven people drowned off Tunisia while swimming to a boat they hoped would take them to Italy.
- 2002, Sep 2: Tunisia's highest court upheld jail terms against opposition leader Hamma Hammami, head of the outlawed Communist Workers Party, and two officials of his political party.
- 2003, Jun 20: A boat carrying some 250 people toward Italy sank off the Tunisian coast, killing at least 50 people. The boat's occupants were all thought to be illegal immigrants.
(AP, 6/20/03)(AP, 6/22/03)
- 2003, Sep 30: In the largest terrorism trial in Belgium's history Nizar Trabelsi of Tunisia, who once played professional soccer in Germany, received the maximum sentence of 10 years in prison from a court that also convicted 17 other men and acquitted five others.
- 2003, Dec 5: In Tunisia an informal, two-day summit brought leaders from five southern European countries together with five of their counterparts from across the Mediterranean.
- 2003, Dec 6: The Europe and North Africa summit ended a 2-day meeting in Tunisia. The group, formed in 1990, gathered leaders from North Africa - Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Mauritania and Libya - with leaders from France, Italy, Spain, Portugal and Malta.
- 2003: The African Development (AfDB) fled its home in the Ivory Coast and set up operations in Tunisia.
(Econ, 5/19/07, p.50)
- 2004, Feb 18: President George Bush praised social progress in Tunisia and welcomed its leader, Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, as a partner in the fight against terrorism while also urging political reforms in the moderate Muslim nation in North African nation.
- 2004, Apr: In Tunisia the Nawaat collective blog was created. It was quickly blocked and remained blocked until January 2011. It played a major role in channeling the opposition to Ben Ali's long rule and covered protests that culminated in his ouster.
- 2004, May 22: An Arab League summit met for a 2-day session in Tunis. 8 Arab leaders, including Crown Prince Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, failed to show up and Libya leader Moammar Gadhafi walked out on the 1st day.
- 2004, May 23: In Tunisia Arab leaders concluded a 2-day summit and committed their countries to political reforms.
(SFC, 5/24/04, p.A7)
- 2004, Oct 3: Twenty-two would-be immigrants drowned and 42 were missing after a boat that was to have carried them across the Mediterranean broke up and sank off the Tunisian coast.
- 2004, Oct 23: Tunisia's Pres. Ben Ali (68) won elections with 94.5% of the vote.
(WSJ, 10/26/04, p.A1)(Econ, 10/23/04, p.46)
- 2005, Jan: Tunisia's 1st private television station began broadcasting under the name “Hannibal TV.”
(WSJ, 5/26/05, p.A1)(www.hannibaltv.com.tn/)
- 2005 , Jun: The Trans-Sahara Counter-Terrorism Initiative began operations. The US funded plan intended to provide military equipment and development aid to 9 north-east African countries considered fertile ground for Muslim militant groups. Participating countries included Algeria, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, and Tunisia.
(SFC, 12/27/05, p.A1)
- 2005, July: Parliament introduces an upper house - the Chamber of Councilors - which is dominated by the ruling party.
- 2005, Aug 6: A Tunis Air jet carrying 35 passengers went down in the sea off the Sicilian coast, and rescuers were on their way. 16 people were killed, while 23 survived. A bad fuel gauge on the Tuninter plane caused the crash. On March 23, 2009, the Tunisian pilot who paused to pray instead of taking emergency measures before crash-landing his plane, was sentenced to 10 years in jail by an Italian court along with his co-pilot. Another five employees of Tuninter, a subsidiary of Tunisair, were sentenced to between 8 and 9 years in jail.
(AP, 8/5/05)(AP, 8/7/05)(WSJ, 9/8/05, p.A1)(Reuters, 3/24/09)
- 2005, Oct 18: In Tunisia 8 prominent opponents of the government went on a hunger strike ahead of a world summit on information in Tunis. They called for freedom of the press and of association and want Tunisia's 600-odd political prisoners to be freed.
(Econ, 11/12/05, p.50)
- 2005, Nov 16: A UN technology summit opened in Tunisia after an 11th-hour agreement that leaves the United States with ultimate oversight of the main computers that direct the Internet's flow of information, commerce and dissent. Authorities deny that police have harassed journalists and other delegates.
- 2006, Feb 11: In Tunis US Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld and leaders of Tunisia pledged to build closer military ties to help combat Islamic extremism.
- 2007, Jan 3: In Tunisia at least 14 people, including two security forces, were killed in the shootout in Soliman, 25 miles south of the capital, Tunis. Fifteen people were arrested. On Jan 12 the interior minister said nearly 30 Islamic extremists involved in a deadly gunbattle with police had blueprints of foreign embassies and documents naming foreign envoys.
- 2007, Apr 30: In southern Tunisia a stampede at an open-air concert by stars of the Arab version of “American Idol” killed seven young people and injured 32.
- 2007, May 14: In Tunisia Sfax port officials said the Tunisian coastguard had rescued 35 African would-be immigrants who were trying to sail to Italy from the Libya coast. More than 1,000 people have landed on Spanish or Italian territory since May 10.
- 2007, Jun 9: In Bosnia Karray Kamel bin Ali, alias Abu Hamza, Tunisian-born radical Islamist, was arrested near Zenica. This was several hours after he and possibly three or four others attacked a house owned by Zijad Kovac. 3 family members were wounded.
- 2007, Jun 19: The US announced the transfer of six Guantanamo Bay prisoners back to their home countries, including one who, according to his lawyers, now may face abuse in Tunisia for nonviolent political activities. 4 men returned to Yemen and two to Tunisia.
- 2007, Jul 6: EU officials said they have asked Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia to join patrols of Europe's border control agency in a bid to stop massive clandestine immigration.
- 2007, Nov 6: Italian police said a Europe-wide sweep disrupted an Islamic cell that was recruiting potential suicide bombers for attacks in Iraq and Afghanistan. They announced the arrests of 20 terror suspects, mostly Tunisians. Authorities in Britain, France and Portugal confirmed arrests.
- 2007, Nov 15: A Tunisian court convicted a former prisoner at the US prison at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, on terror charges. Abdullah Bin Omar, a Tunisian citizen who spent five years at the detention facility in Cuba, was released in June.
- 2007, Nov: Tunisia blocked access to popular video-sharing sites YouTube and DailyMotion, which both carried material about Tunisian political prisoners. Tunisian activists and allies responded by linking videos about civil liberties to the image of Tunisia's presidential palace in Google Earth.
(Econ, 6/28/08, p.67)
- 2008, Jan 7: The Tunis-based Arab League Educational Cultural and Scientific Organization said nearly one in 3 people in the Arab world is illiterate, including nearly half of all women in the region.
- 2008, Jan 30: Tunisia hosted the 25th session of the meeting of Arab Ministers of the Interior. Security chiefs agreed to toughen rules on material that might promote terrorism.
(Econ, 2/9/08, p.53)(http://allafrica.com/stories/200801220589.html)
- 2008, Feb 22: In Tunisia 2 Austrian tourists were kidnapped. Al-Qaida in Islamic North Africa later claimed responsibility and warned western tourists to stay away. The 2 tourists were released on October 31.
(AFP, 3/11/08)(WSJ, 3/11/08, p.A1)(AP, 10/31/08)
- 2008, Jul 18: In Tunisia 2 officials and three others were convicted of plotting terror attacks and to overthrow the government.
(WSJ, 7/19/08, p.A1)
- 2008, Aug 23: A Tunisian court convicted 13 Islamic militants on charges linked to plots to carry out attacks in the north African country. 6 more were convicted on Aug 26 for establishing a military camp in Tunisia's northeastern Kef region designed to train fighters to be sent to Iraq.
- 2008, Oct 30: Scientists reported that 1 in 17 men living on the coasts of North Africa and southern Europe may have a Phoenician direct male line ancestor. Evidence was based on Y-chromosomes collected in Cyprus, Malta, Morocco, the West Bank, Syria and Tunisia.
(SFC, 10/31/08, p.A14)
- 2008, Nov 1: Three Tunisian men accused of terrorism links by Italian prosecutors arrived in Milan under heavy security after being extradited from Britain. Habib Ignaoua, Mohamed Khemiri and Ali Chehidi were arrested in the London and Manchester areas last year as part of coordinated raids across Europe against an alleged Italian-based network recruiting fighters for Iraq and Afghanistan.
- 2009, Feb: French court sentences German convert to Islam to 18 years over attack on Djerba synagogue in 2002. Walid Nouar, brother of suicide bomber, got 12 years for his part in al-Qaeda attack.
- 2009, May 26: Tunisia's Justice Minister Bechir Tekkari said his country is ready to accept the 10 Tunisians held at Guantanamo Bay.
(SFC, 5/27/09, p.A2)
- 2009, July: Police charge nine men, including two air-force officers, with plotting to kill US servicemen during joint military exercises.
- 2009, Oct 25: Tunisians cast ballots for president and parliament in elections expected to hand another landslide victory to incumbent leader Zine El Abidine Ben Ali (73), who warned opponents they would face legal retaliation if they questioned the elections' fairness. Pres. Zine El Abidine Ben Ali was re-elected for a fifth 5-year term with an overwhelming 89% of the vote, his weakest performance yet but more than enough to show his solid grip on the nation.
(AP, 10/25/09)(AP, 10/26/09)(Econ, 10/31/09, p.59)
- 2009, Nov 26: In Tunisia Taoufik Ben Brik (49), a journalist known for his critical stance toward Tunisia's government, was sentenced to six months in prison for what his lawyer called a trumped-up assault charge. Brik was released on April 27, 2010.
(AP, 11/26/09)(AP, 4/27/10)
- 2009, Dec 20: Italian state-run and private television stations said a third Tunisian detainee from Guantanamo Bay is being moved to Italy to face international terrorism charges for having allegedly recruited fighters for Afghanistan. He was identified as Moez Ben Abdelkader Fezzani (40), also known as Abou Nassim.
- 2010, Jan 22: Some 124 refugees, who said they are Kurds and Tunisians, landed on the southern shore of Corsica after a lengthy journey at sea.
- 2010, Jun 23: Mohamed Mzali (23 December 1925 – 23 June 2010), former Tunisian prime minister (1980-1986) and a member of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) from 1965 until his death, died in Paris after a long illness.
- 2010, Jul 6: A Tunisian appeals court upheld a prison sentence in absentia of four years and one month for journalist Fahem Boukaddous. He had covered protests that turned violent in 2008 over high unemployment in the Gafsa mining region.
- 2010, Nov 22: Egypt's Orascom Telecom said it is selling its entire 50% stake in its Tunisian subsidiary to Qatar Telecom in a deal valued at $1.2 billion.
- 2010, Dec 17: In Tunisia, Mohamed Bouazizi (29 March 1984 – 4 January 2011), age 26, a university graduate without a steady job and trying to support his family, burned himself after police confiscated the fruits and vegetables he sold without a permit. His self-immolation left him in intensive care and sparked protests over unemployment that led to at least three deaths. Bouazizi died on Jan 4.
(AP, 1/2/11)(AP, 1/5/11)
- 2010: Dec 22: In Tunisia a 24-year-old jobless protester was electrocuted after announcing he wanted to end his life and mounting a high-voltage electricity pole in the town of Sidi Bouzid. Police fired tear gas at stone-throwing protesters after simmering tensions linked to unemployment erupted after the demonstrator committed suicide. (AP, 12/23/10)
- 2011, Jan: President Ben Ali goes into exile amid continuing protests.
- Prime Minister Mohammed Ghannouchi announces an interim national unity government, only partly satisfying protesters.
- 2011, Feb: Prime Minister Ghannouchi resigns, responding to demands by demonstrators calling for a clean break with the past.
- 2011, March: Date for election of a constitutional council set for 24 July.
Rally for Constitutional Democracy (RCD), the party of ousted President Ben Ali, is dissolved by court order.
- 2011, April: Libya troops cross border into Tunisia during clashes with rebels. Thousands of Tunisians flee by boat to the Italian island of Lampedusa.
- 2011, May: Curfew imposed amid fresh street protests.
- 2011, June: Ex-president Ben Ali is tried in absentia for theft. He is sentenced to 35 years in prison.
- 2011, Oct: Parliamentary elections. Ennahda Islamist party wins, but falls short of an outright majority.
- 2011, Nov: National assembly which will draft a new constitution meets for first time.
- 2011, Dec: Human rights activist Moncef Marzouki is elected president by the constituent assembly, Ennahda leader Hamadi Jebali is sworn in as prime minister.
- 2012, May: Hundreds of Salafi Islamic extremists clash with security forces and attack a police station in Jendouba in a dispute over Salafi attacks on alcohol sellers.
- 2012, June: Former president Ben Ali is sentenced to life in prison over the killing of protesters in the 2011 revolution. He is living in Saudi Arabia, which refuses to extradite him.
- The government imposes an overnight curfew in eight areas following riots by Islamists against an art exhibition. One man died after being shot in the head.
- 2012, Aug: Thousands protest in Tunis against moves by Islamist-led government to reduce women's rights. Draft constitution refers to women as ”complementary to men“, whereas 1956 constitution granted women full equality with men.
- 2013, May: At least one person is killed in clashes between police and Salafi Islamists of the Ansar al-Sharia group in the Tunis suburb of Ettadhamen, where it was holding a meeting. Police also clashed with protesters in the city of Kairouan, where the government had banned an earlier Ansar al-Sharia meeting on security grounds.
- 2013, July: Assassination of opposition politician Mohamed Brahmi prompts mass demonstrations, a general strike and calls for the government to resign.
- 2013, Oct: Governing Islamist party, Ennahda, agrees to hand over power to caretaker government of independent figures tasked with organizing fresh elections in 2014.
- 2013, Dec: After months of wrangling, Ennahda and the mainly secular opposition agree on appointment of Mehdi Jomaa as head of interim government.
- 2014, Jan: Parliament passes the country's first constitution since President Ben Ali was ousted in 2011.
- 2014, Feb: The government says the suspected assassin of opposition politician Chokri Belaid has been killed in an anti-terrorist operation.
- 2014, March: President Marzouki lifts the state of emergency imposed in 2011 during the revolution that toppled his predecessor, Zine el Abidine Ben Ali.
- 2014, May: Tunisia's interim parliament approves a new electoral law to govern legislative and presidential elections.
- 2014, Oct: Nidaa Tounes, which unites secularists, trade unionists, liberals and some players from the Ben Ali era, wins largest bloc of seats in parliamentary election, overtaking the Islamist Ennahda.
- 2014, Dec: Nidaa Tounes candidate Beji Caid Essebsi becomes president after decisively beating outgoing president Moncef Marzouki in run-off elections.
- 2015, March: The Islamic State extremist group claims responsibility for an attack by three gunmen on the Bardo Museum in Tunis, in which 21 people, mainly foreign tourists, were killed
For more information about The History of Tunisia, visit the following sites:
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Tozeur, Tunisia Weather Information
Monthly average highs and low temperatures and the average amount of precipitation for Tozeur, Tunisia.
Data from World Weather On-line - Tunisia > Tozeur > Tozeur.
The climate in Tozeur, is hot and dry during summer when temperatures tend to be in the 90s to over 100 and moderate during winter when temperatures tend to be in the 40's. The yearly mean is 72.4 Fahrenheit.
The warmest months of the year are July and August with an average maximum temperature of 103° Fahrenheit, while the coldest month of the year is January with an average minimum temperature of 44° Fahrenheit.
Temperature variations between night and day tend to be moderate during summer with a difference that can reach 25° Fahrenheit, and small during winter with an average difference of 18° Fahrenheit.
Rainfall in is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year. The driest month of the year is July with an average rainfall of 0.00 Inches. The annual average precipitation at Tozeur of 4.7 Inches.
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Historical Weather data
I am still doing research on this weather history of the city.
Tunisia Notable Severe Weather Events
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