is the located in the Bekaa valley in the Lebanese mountains, about 53 miles (85 km ) northeast
of Beirut, Lebanon. The area has been settled for over 9,000 years.
After Alexander the Great conquered the
Near East in 334 BCE,
the existing settlement was named Heliopolis. Beginning during the reign of the Roman emperor
Augustus, in the last quarter of the 1st century BCE, and over a two centuries
(reign of Philip the Arab), the Romans built a temple complex in Baalbek consisting of three
temples: Jupiter, Bacchus
and Venus. The Roman temples were built on top of earlier ruins that formed a raised
plaza. The plaza was built from twenty-four monoliths, the largest weighing over 800 tons.[c]
The Romans built a fourth temple dedicated to Mercury on a nearby hill.
Today Baalbek is a UNESCOWorld Heritage Site. The city’s population is approximately 72,000 and it hosts
the annual Baalbeck International Festival.
587 BC; The region is annexed to the Babylonian empire, while Jerusalem fell into their hands.
586 BC; The Babylonians under king Nebuchadnezzar II lay siege to Tyre for thirteen years without success. Later a compromise peace was made in which Tyre had to pay tribute to the Babylonians. (to 573 BC)
64 BC; Beirut was conquered by Agrippa and the city was renamed in honour of the emperor's daughter, Julia; its full name became Colonia Julia Augusta Felix Berytus.
27 BC; The Pax Romana period, inhabitants of the principal Phoenician cities of Byblos, Sidon, and Tyre were granted Roman citizenship, while economic and intellectual activities flourished. (to AD 180)
20; Beirut's school of law was founded, it later became widely known in the surrounding region. Two of Rome's most famous jurists, Papinian and Ulpian (both natives of Phoenicia), were taught at the law school under the Severan emperors.
986; Under the Fatimid Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, a new religion was born and spread by a man called Ad-Darazi. This was the beginning of the Druze religion and its expansion in several Lebanese regions.
1187; Saladin conquers virtually all of the
Kingdom of Jerusalem with the exception of
Tyre, which held out under
Conrad of Montferrat. Much of the population, swollen with refugees fleeing Saladin's conquest
of the surrounding territory, was allowed to flee to Tyre, Tripoli, or Egypt (whence they were sent back to Europe), but those who could not pay for their freedom were sold into slavery,
and those who could were often robbed by Christians and Muslims alike on their way into exile.[Ref]
1799; Bashir II declines to assist the siege of Acre by Napoleon and Jezzar Pasha. Unable to conquer Acre, Napoleon returned to Egypt, and the death of Jezzar Pasha in 1804 removed Bashir's principal opponent in the area.
1831; Bashir II breaks away from the Ottoman Empire, allies with Muhammad Ali of Egypt and assists Muhammad Ali's son, Ibrahim Pasha, in another siege of Acre. This siege lasted seven months, the city falling on 27 May 1832. The Egyptian army, with assistance from Bashir's troops, also attacked and conquered Damascus on 14 June 1832.
1840; After Muhammad Ali's rejection of the requests of the Convention of London of 1840 signed on 15 June 1840, Ottoman and British troops landed on the Lebanese coast on 10 September 1840. Faced with this combined force, Muhammad Ali retreated, and on 14 October 1840, Bashir II surrendered to the British and went into exile.
1841; Conflicts between the Druze and the Maronite Christians exploded. A Maronite revolt against the Feudal class erupted, and lasted until 1858.
1860; A full scale war erupted between Maronites and Druze. Napoleon III of France sent 7,000 troops to Beirut and helped impose a partition: The Druze control of the territory was recognised as the fact on the ground, and the Maronites were forced into an enclave, arrangements ratified by the concert of Europe in 1861.
1918, March 3: Russia and Germany sign an armistice at Brest-Litovsk.
1918, November 11: Armistice Day. At the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month, Germany signs an armistice with the Allies. The war is officially over. More than 8.5 million have been killed and over twice as many wounded from across the globe. New technology has been created, America has risen to prominence as an economic power and new countries are forming in Europe and the Middle East.
1920, Feburary; France takes control over Lebanese territory after the San Remo conference. Under the Balfour Declaration, the British government had undertaken to favour the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine without prejudice to the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jewish in any other country. Britain received the mandate for Palestine and Iraq; France gained control of Syria, including present-day Lebanon.
1935, October 3; The Second Italo-Abyssinian War. Italian armed forces from Eritrea invaded Ethiopia without a declaration of war. In response Ethiopia declares war on Italy. On October 7, the League of Nations declared Italy to be the aggressor, and started the slow process of imposing limited sanctions on Italy.
1940, June 17: The British ocean liner,
RMS Lancastria, requisitioned by the UK Government during the Second World War was sunk
during Operation Aerial
off the cost of Saint-Nazaire, France. At the time of the sinking, there were an estimated 4,000 to 9,000
British military personal and forty civilian refugees, including embassy staff and employees of
Fairey Aviation Company of Belgium with their
families aboard the ship when the ship was struck by 3 to 4 bombs and quickly capsizes and sinks. Estimates of the death toll vary from fewer than 3,000 to 5,800 people to as many as 6,500 people, the largest loss of life in British maritime history.
The estimated number of people that perished during World War II is 70 to 85 million. This was about 3 % of the world’s population in 1940. (Estimated to be 2.3 billion).
This makes World War II the deadliest military conflict in history.
[Ref 1][Ref 2]
*Worldwide casualty estimates vary widely in several sources. The number of civilian deaths in China alone might well be more than 50,000,000.
1943, March; The foundations of the state are set out in an unwritten National Covenant which uses the 1932 census to distribute seats in parliament on a ratio of six-to-five in favor of Christians. This is later extended to other public offices. The president is to be a Maronite Christian, the Prime Minister a Sunni Muslim and the Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies a Shia Muslim.
1943, 22 November; Lebanon gains its independence after national and international pressure following the imprisonment of president Bechara El Khoury and other parliament members by the French.
1975 April - Phalangist gunmen ambush a bus in the Ayn-al-Rummanah district of Beirut, Lebanon, killing 27 of the mainly Palestinian passengers. The Phalangists claim that guerrillas had previously attacked a church in the same district.
1976, June; Syrian troops enter Lebanon to restore peace but also to curb the Palestinians, thousands of whom are killed in a siege of the Tel al-Zaatar camp by Syrian-allied Christian militias in Beirut. Arab states approve of the Syrian presence as an Arab Deterrent Force in October. The Syrian occupation of Lebanon ended in April 2005.
1978; In reprisal for a Palestinian attack, Israel launches a major invasion of southern Lebanon. It withdraws from all but a narrow border strip, which it hands over not to the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) but to its proxy South Lebanon Army mainly Christian militia.
1982, June ; Following the attempted assassination of the Israeli ambassador to Britain by a Palestinian splinter group, Israel launches a full-scale invasion of Lebanon.
1982, September; Pro-Israeli president-elect Bachir Gemayel is assassinated. Israel occupies West Beirut, where the Phalangist militia kills thousands of Palestinians in the Sabra and Shatila camps. Bachir's elder brother Amine is elected president. Mainly US, French and Italian peacekeeping force arrives in Beirut.
1983, April; A Suicide attack on the US embassy kills 63 people and another in October on the headquarters of the peacekeepers kills 241 US and 58 French troops. US troops withdraw in 1984.
1985; Most Israeli troops withdraw apart from the SLA “security zone” in the south.
1990, 13 October; The Syrian air force attacks the Presidential Palace at Baabda and Aoun flees. This formally ends the civil war.
1990, 13 October; Troops invade the Baabda residential Palace and overthrow then Prime Minister General Michel Aoun, and ends with the peaceful revolution of more than one million protesters in Beirut central district, following the assassination of the Lebanese PMRafik Hariri and the withdrawal of the Syrian troops.
2000 - 2013
2000; Israeli forces withdrawal from the South of Lebanon.
2006, July-August; The July War takes place between Hezbollah and Israel, with Israel launching a major military attack, bombing the southern suburbs of Beirut, the Lebanese airport and parts of southern Lebanon, in response to the capture of 2 Israeli soldiers by Hezbollah on 12 July. The conflict ends with the acceptance of the United Nations Security Council approved UN Resolution 1701 by both Israel and Lebanon. Israeli force withdraw back to the international borders. Even though the Resolution calls for the disarmament of Hezbollah, both the Lebanese government and UNIFIL have stated that they will not disarm Hezbollah.
2007, May-September; More than 300 people die during the siege of the Palestinian refugee camp Nahr al-Bared following clashes between Islamist militants and the military. 40,000 residents flee before the army gains control of the camp.
2008 October; Lebanon establishes diplomatic relations with Syria for first time since both countries gained independence in the 1940s.
2009, June; The pro-Western, “March 14 Alliance”, wins parliamentary elections and forms unity government .
2011, January; The Lebanese Government collapses after Hezbollah and allied ministers resign. 
2011, June; Najib Mikati forms cabinet dominated by Hezbollah. The UN's Special Tribunal for Lebanon issues four arrest warrants over the murder of Rafik Hariri. The accused are members of Hezbollah, which says it won't allow their arrest .
2012, December; Several days of deadly fighting between supporters and opponents of the Syrian president in Tripoli.
2013, June; A number of people are killed in clashes between Hezbollah gunmen and Syrian rebels within Lebanon. At least 17 Lebanese soldiers are killed in clashes with Sunni militants in the port city of Sidon.
2013, July; The European Union (EU) lists the military wing of Hezbollah as a terrorist organization. This makes it illegal for Hezbollah sympathizers in Europe to send the group money, and enables the freezing of the group's assets there .
2013, August; Dozens of people are killed in bomb attacks at two Mosques in Tripoli. The twin attacks, which are linked to tensions over the Syrian conflict, are the deadliest in Lebanon since the end of the civil war in 1990 .
Monthly average highs and low temperatures and the average amount of precipitation for Baalbek, Lebanon. Data from Wikipedia, Chinci World Atlas, Baalbek. Location of the reporting station unknown.
The warmest month of the year is August with an average maximum temperature of 90.5° Fahrenheit, while the coldest months of the year is January with an average minimum temperature of
Temperature variations between night and day tend to be large with an average difference of 22.7° Fahrenheit.
The wettest month of the year is January with an average rainfall of 5.87 inches, the driest months of the year are June through September when on average there is no rainfall.
The total annual precipitation in #CityData.City# is 23.35 inches.
Hot-summer Mediterranean climate; coldest month averaging above 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)), at least one month's average temperature above 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least three times as much precipitation in the wettest month of winter as in the driest month of summer, and driest month of summer receives less than 30 mm (1.2 in). [Ref]