Baalbek, Lebanon

Fast Facts

Founded: CA. 7000 BCE Population: 72,000 Time Zone: +2
Latitude: 34.00 N Longitude: 036.211 E Altitude: 3,448 ft
Average High: 68.48 Average Low: 46.21 Annual Precipitation: 23.35


Baalbek, Lebanon, is the located in the Bekaa valley in the Lebanese mountains, about 53 miles (85 km ) northeast of Beirut, Lebanon. The area has been settled for over 9,000 years. After Alexander the Great conquered the Near East in 334 BCE, the existing settlement was named Heliopolis. Beginning during the reign of the Roman emperor Augustus, in the last quarter of the 1st century BCE, and over a two centuries (reign of Philip the Arab), the Romans built a temple complex in Baalbek consisting of three temples: Jupiter, Bacchus and Venus. The Roman temples were built on top of earlier ruins that formed a raised plaza. The plaza was built from twenty-four monoliths, the largest weighing over 800 tons.[c] The Romans built a fourth temple dedicated to Mercury on a nearby hill. Today Baalbek is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The city’s population is approximately 72,000 and it hosts the annual Baalbeck International Festival. [a][b]


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 ◊  History of: Baalbek, Lebanon
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History of Baalbek, Lebanon.

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History of Lebanon[1]

Ancient times

I am still doing research on this history of the Lebanon.

1500 - 1699

1700 - 1899
  • 1799; Bashir II declines to assist the siege of Acre by Napoleon and Jezzar Pasha. Unable to conquer Acre, Napoleon returned to Egypt, and the death of Jezzar Pasha in 1804 removed Bashir's principal opponent in the area.
  • 1831; Bashir II breaks away from the Ottoman Empire, allies with Muhammad Ali of Egypt and assists Muhammad Ali's son, Ibrahim Pasha, in another siege of Acre. This siege lasted seven months, the city falling on 27 May 1832. The Egyptian army, with assistance from Bashir's troops, also attacked and conquered Damascus on 14 June 1832.
  • 1840; After Muhammad Ali's rejection of the requests of the Convention of London of 1840 signed on 15 June 1840, Ottoman and British troops landed on the Lebanese coast on 10 September 1840. Faced with this combined force, Muhammad Ali retreated, and on 14 October 1840, Bashir II surrendered to the British and went into exile.
  • 1841; Conflicts between the Druze and the Maronite Christians exploded. A Maronite revolt against the Feudal class erupted, and lasted until 1858.
  • 1860; A full scale war erupted between Maronites and Druze. Napoleon III of France sent 7,000 troops to Beirut and helped impose a partition: The Druze control of the territory was recognised as the fact on the ground, and the Maronites were forced into an enclave, arrangements ratified by the concert of Europe in 1861.
  • 1861 - 1865 American Civil War.

1900 - 1999
  • 1902, January 30; Japan signs the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. The alliance was renewed and extended in scope in 1905 and 1911, before its demise in 1921. It was officially terminated in 1923.
  • 1914; After the abolishment of Lebanon's semiautonomous status, Jamal Pasha militarily occupies Lebanon.
  • 1914 - 1920 The First World War. [More Information]
  • 1915; Jamal Pasha initiates a blockade of the entire eastern Mediterranean coast. Lebanon witnessed thousands of deaths from widespread famine and plagues.
  • 1916, 6 May; Turkish authorities publicly executed 21 Syrians and Lebanese in Damascus and Beirut, respectively, for alleged anti-Turkish activities.[3]
  • 1918; British general Edmund Allenby and Faysal I, son of Sharif Hussein of Mecca, moved into Palestine with British and Arab forces, thus opening the way for the occupation of Lebanon.
  • 1920, Feburary; France takes control over Lebanese territory after the San Remo conference. Under the Balfour Declaration, the British government had undertaken to favour the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine without prejudice to the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jewish in any other country. Britain received the mandate for Palestine and Iraq; France gained control of Syria, including present-day Lebanon.[11]
  • 1920, 25 April; After World War I, the League of Nations carves a geopolitical entity out of Ottoman Empire´s Southern Syria and placed under British civil administration in Palestine. The formal objective of the League of Nations Mandate system was to administer parts of the defunct Ottoman Empire, which had been in control of the Middle East since the 16th century, “until such time as they are able to stand alone”. This area would comprise all of what eventually became entually became Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Palestine and Iraq.
  • 1926, May; Lebanese Representative Council approves a constitution and the unified Lebanese Republic under the French mandate is declared.[4]
  • 1931, September 18, Japan invades Manchuria.
  • 1935, October 3; The Second Italo-Abyssinian War. Italian armed forces from Eritrea invaded Ethiopia without a declaration of war. In response Ethiopia declares war on Italy. On October 7, the League of Nations declared Italy to be the aggressor, and started the slow process of imposing limited sanctions on Italy.
  • 1935: The Soviet Union declares that the fascist states of Germany and Japan are the enemies.
  • 1939 - 1945 World War II. [More Information]

  • 1943, March; The foundations of the state are set out in an unwritten National Covenant which uses the 1932 census to distribute seats in parliament on a ratio of six-to-five in favor of Christians. This is later extended to other public offices. The president is to be a Maronite Christian, the Prime Minister a Sunni Muslim and the Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies a Shia Muslim.
  • 1943, 22 November; Lebanon gains its independence after national and international pressure following the imprisonment of president Bechara El Khoury and other parliament members by the French.
  • 1947, 29 November; the United Nations General Assembly recommended the adoption and implementation of the Plan of Partition with Economic Union .[10]
  • 1948; The state of Israel was declared. Palestinian refugees begin arriving in Lebanon.
  • 1958; A civil war erupts but short lived after the intervention of 5,000 US Marines ordered by President Eisenhower upon the request of the Lebanese president Camille Chamoun.[5]
  • 1975 April - Phalangist gunmen ambush a bus in the Ayn-al-Rummanah district of Beirut, Lebanon, killing 27 of the mainly Palestinian passengers. The Phalangists claim that guerrillas had previously attacked a church in the same district.[6]
  • 1975 - 1990; The Lebanese Civil War.
  • 1976, June; Syrian troops enter Lebanon to restore peace but also to curb the Palestinians, thousands of whom are killed in a siege of the Tel al-Zaatar camp by Syrian-allied Christian militias in Beirut. Arab states approve of the Syrian presence as an Arab Deterrent Force in October. The Syrian occupation of Lebanon ended in April 2005.[7]
  • 1978; In reprisal for a Palestinian attack, Israel launches a major invasion of southern Lebanon. It withdraws from all but a narrow border strip, which it hands over not to the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) but to its proxy South Lebanon Army mainly Christian militia.
  • 1982, June ; Following the attempted assassination of the Israeli ambassador to Britain by a Palestinian splinter group, Israel launches a full-scale invasion of Lebanon.
  • 1982, September; Pro-Israeli president-elect Bachir Gemayel is assassinated. Israel occupies West Beirut, where the Phalangist militia kills thousands of Palestinians in the Sabra and Shatila camps. Bachir's elder brother Amine is elected president. Mainly US, French and Italian peacekeeping force arrives in Beirut.
  • 1983, April; A Suicide attack on the US embassy kills 63 people and another in October on the headquarters of the peacekeepers kills 241 US and 58 French troops. US troops withdraw in 1984.
  • 1985; Most Israeli troops withdraw apart from the SLA “security zone” in the south.
  • 1990, 13 October; The Syrian air force attacks the Presidential Palace at Baabda and Aoun flees. This formally ends the civil war.
  • 1990, 13 October; Troops invade the Baabda residential Palace and overthrow then Prime Minister General Michel Aoun, and ends with the peaceful revolution of more than one million protesters in Beirut central district, following the assassination of the Lebanese PM Rafik Hariri and the withdrawal of the Syrian troops.

2000 - 2013
  • 2000; Israeli forces withdrawal from the South of Lebanon.
  • 2005; The Syrian occupation of Lebanon ends. [8]
  • 2006, July-August; The July War takes place between Hezbollah and Israel, with Israel launching a major military attack, bombing the southern suburbs of Beirut, the Lebanese airport and parts of southern Lebanon, in response to the capture of 2 Israeli soldiers by Hezbollah on 12 July. The conflict ends with the acceptance of the United Nations Security Council approved UN Resolution 1701 by both Israel and Lebanon. Israeli force withdraw back to the international borders. Even though the Resolution calls for the disarmament of Hezbollah, both the Lebanese government and UNIFIL have stated that they will not disarm Hezbollah.[9][12]
  • 2007, May-September; More than 300 people die during the siege of the Palestinian refugee camp Nahr al-Bared following clashes between Islamist militants and the military. 40,000 residents flee before the army gains control of the camp.[9]
  • 2008 October; Lebanon establishes diplomatic relations with Syria for first time since both countries gained independence in the 1940s.[9]
  • 2009, June; The pro-Western, “March 14 Alliance”, wins parliamentary elections and forms unity government .[9]
  • 2011, January; The Lebanese Government collapses after Hezbollah and allied ministers resign. [9]
  • 2011, June; Najib Mikati forms cabinet dominated by Hezbollah. The UN's Special Tribunal for Lebanon issues four arrest warrants over the murder of Rafik Hariri. The accused are members of Hezbollah, which says it won't allow their arrest .[9]
  • 2012, December; Several days of deadly fighting between supporters and opponents of the Syrian president in Tripoli.[9]
  • 2013, June; A number of people are killed in clashes between Hezbollah gunmen and Syrian rebels within Lebanon. At least 17 Lebanese soldiers are killed in clashes with Sunni militants in the port city of Sidon.[9]
  • 2013, July; The European Union (EU) lists the military wing of Hezbollah as a terrorist organization. This makes it illegal for Hezbollah sympathizers in Europe to send the group money, and enables the freezing of the group's assets there .[9]
  • 2013, August; Dozens of people are killed in bomb attacks at two Mosques in Tripoli. The twin attacks, which are linked to tensions over the Syrian conflict, are the deadliest in Lebanon since the end of the civil war in 1990 .[9]

More information:

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Baalbek, Lebanon, Weather Information

Monthly average highs and low temperatures and the average amount of precipitation for Baalbek, Lebanon.
Data from Wikipedia, Chinci World Atlas, Baalbek. Location of the reporting station unknown.

Month Jan. Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Annual
Avg. High 47.8 ° 48.7 ° 56.3 ° 65.7 ° 75.4 ° 84.6 ° 89.8 ° 90.5 ° 83.5 ° 68.4 ° 60.3 ° 50.7 ° 68.48 °
Avg. Low 31.1 ° 32.4 ° 36.7 ° 43.5 ° 50 ° 57.6 ° 61 ° 61.7 ° 54.9 ° 49.1 ° 41.4 ° 35.1 ° 46.21 °
Mean 39.45 ° 40.55 ° 46.5 ° 54.6 ° 62.7 ° 71.1 ° 75.4 ° 76.1 ° 69.2 ° 58.75 ° 50.85 ° 42.9 ° 57.34 °
Avg. Prec. 5.87 in 4.41 in 3.78 in 0.98 in 0.39 in 0 in 0 in 0 in 0 in 0.83 in 2.72 in 4.37 in 23.35 in

The warmest month of the year is August with an average maximum temperature of 90.5° Fahrenheit, while the coldest months of the year is January with an average minimum temperature of 31.1° Fahrenheit.

Temperature variations between night and day tend to be large with an average difference of 22.7° Fahrenheit.

The wettest month of the year is January with an average rainfall of 5.87 inches, the driest months of the year are June through September when on average there is no rainfall. The total annual precipitation in #CityData.City# is 23.35 inches.

Climate Classification:

The climate in Baalbek, Lebanon, is classified as hot-summer Mediterranean climate; (Csa) by the Köppen-Geiger system.

 Hot-summer Mediterranean climate; coldest month averaging above 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)), at least one month's average temperature above 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least three times as much precipitation in the wettest month of winter as in the driest month of summer, and driest month of summer receives less than 30 mm (1.2 in). [Ref]

Earth Science

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Historical Weather data

Lebanon Notable Severe Weather Events

I am still doing research on the weather history of Lebanon

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  1. Wikipedia – Timeline of Lebanese history   [Online]
  2. Wikipedia – Byblos   [Online]
  3. Wikipedia – Martyrs' Day (Lebanon and Syria)   [Online]'_Day_(Lebanon_and_Syria)
  4. BBC News – Lebanon profile   [Online]
  5. BBC News – Lebanon profile   [Online]
  6. BBC News – Lebanon profile   [Online]
  7. Wikipedia – Syrian occupation of Lebanon   [Online]
  8. Wikipedia – Syrian occupation of Lebanon   [Online]
  9. Wikipedia – United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine   [Online]
      •The Avalon Project – United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181   [Online]
  10. Wikipedia – San Remo conference   [Online]
  11. Wikipedia – 2006 Lebanon War   [Online]
      •Wikipedia – United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701   [Online]
  12. Wikipedia - Baalbek  [Online]
  13. bibliotecapleyades - Jupiter’s Temple, Baalbek, Lebanon,   [Online]

Last Update: March 18, 2019

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