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Columbia, SC

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Founded: 1786 Population: 129,272 Time Zone: -5
Latitude: 34.00 N Longitude: 081.033 W Altitude: 285 ft
Average High: 78.0 Average Low: 54.3 Annual Precipitation: 47.14

 

Columbia is the capital of South Carolina and is the county seat of Richland County, but a small portion of the city extends into Lexington County. The city's name is derived from a poetic name for America, based on the name of Christopher Columbus, the use of the moniker being first attributed to poet Phillis Wheatley, according to popular legend.

Columbia is located 13 miles northwest of South Carolina's geographic center, and as such it is centrally located to the rest of the state. Founded in 1786 as the site of South Carolina's new capital city, it was one of the first planned cities in the United States. The area is often cited for its high quality of life offerings, with its many cultural amenities, parks, and recreational features. Columbia is located at the confluence of the Saluda and Broad Rivers which join to form the Congaree River.


  US Census Quick Facts about Columbia, SC.


  2010 U.S. Census Demographic Profile about Columbia, SC.


 


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      Memorial Park Columbia skyline South Carolina Statehouse

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      History

      Columbia, SC, was established by the South Carolina General Assembly in 1786 to replace Charleston as the seat of government for South Carolina. The reason for moving the state's capital from Charleston was because of the growing numbers of backcountry residents, who by the late 1700s outnumbered their Lowcountry counterparts four to one. The city's name may stem from Christopher Columbus who was credited with founding the New World in 1492. Columbia enjoys the distinction of being the state's first planned city, and only the second planned city in the United States (Savannah, Georgia was the first).



      Columbia's original layout consisted of blocks laid out within a two-mile-by-two-mile square grid. Bordered by the Congaree River to its west, the city is situated along the state's geographic fall line, or the point at which the rivers cease to be navigable from the Lowcountry. Thanks to this, and the fact that the city rests almost in the middle of the state, Columbia grew into a center for politics, education, commerce, and transportation within the first generation of its existence. Much of the city's success stemmed from an economy based upon cotton whose international marketability yielded vast sums of wealth, evident in the homes left behind by plantation owners. With the advent of greater technology such as a canal system in the 1820s and then rail service by 1842, Columbia was a modern city boasting a population of about 6,000 by the mid nineteenth century. A decade later, on the eve of the Civil War ((1861-1865)), Columbia was the largest inland town in the Carolinas. With 8,052 residents it was twice the size of its closest rival of Raleigh, North Carolina.



      • 2006; Population 122,819.
      • 2010; Population 129,272.
      For more information on the history of Columbia and of South Carolina, visit




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      South Carolina History



      Ancient times


    • ca. 40,000-15,000 B.C.; People migrate to North America from Asia at irregular intervals by way of the Bering Land Bridge.
    • 10,000-8000 B.C.; Paleo-Indian-period American Indians are nomadic and hunt large animals for food. They also eat small game and wild plants. They leave no evidence of permanent dwellings in North Carolina.
    • 2,500 BC - 100 BC; Gulf Formational Period of Indian culture with increasing sophistication in ceramic development with tempered pottery.
    • 1,000 B.C.-A.D. 1550; Woodland-culture American Indians settle in permanent locations, usually beside streams, and practice a mixed subsistence lifestyle of hunting, gathering, and some agriculture. They create pottery and also develop elaborate funeral procedures, such as building mounds, to honor their dead.
    • A.D 950 to 1250; Medieval Warm Period.
    • A.D. 700-1550; Mississippian-culture American Indians create large political units called chiefdoms, uniting people under stronger leadership than the Woodland cultures have. Towns become larger and last longer. People construct flat-topped, pyramidal mounds to serve as foundations for temples, mortuaries, chiefs' houses, and other important buildings. Towns are usually situated beside streams and surrounded by defensive structures. The Etowah Indian Mounds just west of the confluence of Pumpkinvine Creek and the Etowah River south of Cartersville, GA, are an example of the mounds built during this period.
    • 1300-1850: The Little Ice Age.
    • At least 29 distinct groups of Indians, or tribes, lived within South Carolina. Many of the tribes that once lived in South Carolina are now extinct due to European diseases, such as smallpox, for which they had no immunity, and to conflicts with the settlers over trade practices and land. This means that there are either no surviving members or that they no longer organize themselves as a tribe.

      A few tribes, however, still exist and are active today. This means that descendents of the original tribe organize themselves, either socially or politically, as a group. This includes the Catawba, Pee Dee, Chicora, Edisto, Santee and Chicora-Waccamaw tribes. There are also many descendents of the Cherokee.

      1500 - 1700
      • 1521 June 24: First recorded Spanish expedition reaches the Carolina coast, probably near Winyah Bay (present day Georgetown, South Carolina).
      • 1524: First French ship scouts the Carolina coast.
      • 1526 August: First Spanish attempt at a settlement, San Miguel de Gualdape, probably near Winyah Bay. The first group of African Americans to set foot on what is now the United States were brought by a Spanish explorer to South Carolina to erect the settlement San Miguel de Gualdape. However, they fled to the interior on April 22 and settled with the native American people. Colony fails within a year, and only 150 of 500 settlers live to return home.
      • 1540: Hernando de Soto may have reached Carolina Lowcountry on a trek north from Florida.
      • 1562: First French attempt at a settlement made by Jean Ribaut on Parris Island. Built a fort named Charlesfort. Settlement fails within a year. Similar French attempts to settle in Florida bring about bloody Spanish massacre and equally bloody French reprisal.
      • 1565: Founding of St. Augustine Florida.
      • 1566: A Spanish settlement is established at Santa Elena (Parris Island).
      • 1566: Spain decides to build coastal forts to discourage French settlements. First of these, Fort San Felipe (later rebuilt as Fort San Marco), is built near the ruins of Charlesfort.
      • 1587: Spanish withdraw from San Marco after Sir Francis Drake burns St. Augustine, FL.
      • 1607; First permanent English colony in North America established at Jamestown, VA.
      • 1620; Pilgrims establish Plymouth Colony in present-day Plymouth, Massachusetts.
      • 1623: First charter for Carolina Colony granted to Sir Robert Heath by King Charles I. Charter would never be used.
      • 1663: King Charles II, as repayment for their political support against the forces of Richard Cromwell, grants eight ex-generals, the Lords Proprietors, title to Carolina. Charter is later amended to include the Albemarle Sound settlements.
      • 1666: Capt. Robert Sanford explores and names the Ashley River. On June 23 takes formal possession of Carolina for England and the Proprietors.
      • 1669 July 21: The Fundamental Constitution of Carolina, written by the philosopher John Locke, serving as secretary to Ashley-Cooper, is approved by the Lords Proprietors. Its guarantee of religious freedom, in language similar to Locke's "A Letter Concerning Toleration", will have a profound and lasting influence on the development of Charleston's social fabric, leading to the immigration of such diverse groups as French Huguenots and Sephardic Jews.
      • 1669: Carolina colonists sail from London on three ships: the Albemarle, the Port Royal, and the Carolina.
      • 1669 Nov 2: The colonists reach Barbados, where their ships are struck by a hurricane. The Albemarle is destroyed and the Port Royal and Carolina are damaged.
      • 1670 March 15: The Carolina arrives in Seewee Bay, and proceeds to anchor at the north end of Bull's Island.
      • 1670 April: Charles Town is founded as the capital city of Carolina, across the Ashley River from its current site on the main peninsula.
      • 1672: Charles Town is reported to consist of 30 houses and some 200-300 settlers
      • 1673 The first Morris Island light station at the entrance to Charleston Harbor is build. The light station is a raised metal pan filled with pitch set afire nightly. The light station is replaced in 1767.
      • 1680: Charles Town is moved to Oyster Point. 45 French Protestants (Huguenots) arrive from England.
      • 1685 October: Louis XIV revokes the Edict of Nantes, which had guaranteed the rights of Huguenots in France. This revocation accelerates the emigration of French Huguenots to Charleston, SC.
      • 1690: Charles Town is officially moved to current site on the peninsula. Population is estimated at 1,200, making it the fifth largest city in North America.
      • 1693: "Liberty of Conscience" substantiated, reaffirming the right of locals to worship as they please.
      • 1698: The first library is established in Charles Town by Thomas Bray.
      • 1698 Oct 8: Increasing importation of African slaves prompts a law providing cash incentive for bringing white servants into Carolina.

      1700 - 1899

      • 1700 Sept 1: Hurricane of 1700 strikes Chares Town, SC.
      • 1700 Nov 16: The City Assembly of Chares Town, SC, establishes a tax-supported free library, possibly the first public library in America. It operates for 14 years.
      • 1706, Sept. 2: A joint French and Spanish attack upon Charles Town during the Queen Anne's War is repulsed when Colonial forces capture French vessel and crew.
      • 1710 The Powder Magazine is built at 79 Cumberland St. and Pink House Tavern is built at 17 Chalmers St. in Chares Town, SC.
      • 1712: The territory of Carolina is divided into North Carolina and South Carolina, each having its own governor.
      • 1713 Sept 5: Hurricane of 1713 strikes Chares Town, SC.
      • 1715: Yemassee Indian War lasts two years in Carolina
      • 1718: Blackbeard the Pirate sails into Charles Town Harbor with four ships; takes hostages for ransom. Also in this year, the pirate Stede Bonnet is hanged at White Point.
      • 1719: Failure of Lords Proprietors to protect colonists from various threats results in a Revolutionary Assembly. Citizens petition the King to take over the reins of government.
      • 1721: South Carolina becomes a royal colony. General Sir Francis Nicholson made Governor.
      • 1728: Regular passenger and shipping service begins between Charles Town and New York.
      • 1729 July 25: King George II buys out the Lords Proprietors, finalizing South Carolina's transformation into a Royal Colony.
      • 1730: Nine townships are laid out to extend the settlement and provide for a better defense. Boundary lines, defining the two Carolinas (North and South), is begun but is not completed until 1815. Settlers began to move into the interior of South Carolina when the colonial government provided incentives for landowners in new townships.
      • 1732 Jan 8: The South Carolina Gazette publishes its first edition under J. Whitemarsh, becoming the state's first successful newspaper.
      • 1732 April 19: The first known concert in Charles Town is performed by John Salter, organist of St. Philip's.
      • 1733 Jan. 13: James Oglethorpe and the first settlers for Georgia arrive in Charles Town Harbor on the Anne. Savannah, Georgia, is founded soon after.
      • 1735, Feb. 18: The first public presentation of an opera in the colonies is performed at Broad and Church in Charles Town.
      • 1736, Feb. 3: America's first fire insurance company is organized-the Friendly Society of Charleston.
      • 1736: One of the first theatres in the country, The Dock Street Theatre, opens with The Recruiting Officer.
      • 1739 Sept 9: Forty (40) blacks and 21 whites are killed during a slave revolt along the Stono River.
      • 1747 April 18: City leaders sign a treaty with Choctaw Indians establishing trade in return for their attacking French settlements.
      • 1752 Sept: Great Hurricane of 1752 devastates Charles Town, SC, killing nearly a hundred.
      • 1755: Joseph Salvador purchases land near Fort Ninety Six for Jewish settlement.
      • 1756 - 1763; The Seven Years War (French and Indian War) due to disputes over land is won by Great Britain. The war ended with the Treaty of Paris among France, Spain and Great Britain and the Treaty of Hubertusburg among Saxony, Austria and Prussia, in 1763. France gives England all French territory east of the Mississippi River, except New Orleans. The Spanish give up east and west Florida to the English in return for Cuba.[Source]
      • 1760 October 25: King George II dies after a 33-year reign, at 77, and George III begins a disastrous 60-year reign.
      • 1758 - 1761: The Anglo-Cherokee War ended in a treaty that opened the up Country for settlement. The Bounty Act of 1761 offered public land tax free for ten years, and settlers from other colonies began pouring into the Up Country (see map).
      • 1761, Feb. 1: First services are held at St. Michael's Church, the oldest surviving church building in Charles Town, SC.
      • 1764, April 5: The Sugar Act is passed. This is the first serious dispute between the colonies and Great Britain.
      • 1765, March 22: The British Parliament passes the Stamp Act.
      • 1766, March 18;: King George III signs bill to rescind the Stamp Act.
      • 1767, June 29: The Townshend Revenue Act passed by Parliament. The Act imposes duties on tea, glass, paint, oil, lead and paper imported into the colonies. The estimated revenue is £40,000 per annum. Charles Townsend, is Chancellor of the Exchequer. Townshend said, "These colonies are children of the mother country. They were planted by our care and nurtured by us. They will not grudge us their mite to help with the heavy burden we bear. "James Habersham warns the British, "If you persist in your right to tax the colonists, you will drive them to rebellion."
      • 1770, January 19-20: The battle of Golden Hill, New York, is the first clash between British forces and colonists.
      • 1770, March 5: Boston Massacre. British troops fire into a rioting mob killing five men and wounding six. Three men die instantly and two die later of wounds. The British Captain and his men are tried for murder and acquitted. The prosecutor is Robert Treat Paine and the defense attorneys are John Adams and Josiah Quincy II.
      • 1773 Jan. 12: A committee of "The Library Society" establishes the Charleston Museum -- the oldest in the country.
      • 1774 July 7: Charlestonians Henry Middleton , John Rutledge , Edward Rutledge , Thomas Lynch , and Christopher Gadsden are named delegates to the First Continental Congress.
      • 1774 Oct 22: Henry Middleton is chosen President of the Continental Congress.
      • 1775 Jan 11: Carolina's First Provincial Congress convenes at the Old Exchange.
      • 1775 June 18: Lord William Campbell, the last Royal Governor, arrives.
      • 1775 Dec 9: The first Chamber of Commerce in America is formed during a meeting at Mrs. Swallow's Tavern, Charles Town, SC.
      • 1774, September 5: First Continental Congress in Philadelphia is attended by twelve of the nineteen continental colonies. Georgia, Canada, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, East Florida and West Florida do not attend.
      • 1774, October 14 - A Declaration of Rights and Grievances is adopted by the Continental Congress. George Washington writes "no thinking man in all of North America desires independence".
      • 1774, October 20: The Continental Congress adopts Articles of Association which is an agreement to import nothing from Great Britain after December 1, and to export nothing to Great Britain, Ireland or the British West Indies unless grievances against the Crown are redressed. The Association is ratified within six months by all colonies except Georgia and New York.
      • 1774, October 26: The Continental Congress sends a petition to King George and an address to the British people.
      • 1774, December: St. Johns Parish, Georgia ratifies the acts of the Continental Congress and attempts to secede from Georgia and join South Carolina. St. Johns elects its own delegate, Lyman Hall, to the Continental Congress. The Continental Congress banned all intercourse with Georgia except for St. Johns Parish.
      • 1775 to 1781: American Revolution in South Carolina.
        • 1775, April 19: Battles of Lexington and Concord.
        • 1775, May 10: Second Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia.
        • 1775, June 15: George Washington is appointed commander in chief of the Continental Army.
        • 1775, August 13: George III Proclaims the Americas in a State of Rebellion.
        • 1775 November 19 and 21: First Battle of Ninety-Six.
        • 1776 Spring: Admiral Sir Peter Parker and General Sir Henry Clinton prepare a campaign to occupy Sullivan's Island as the southern base of British operations. Major General Charles Lee, the American commander of the Southern Department, arrives in Charles Town to take charge of the defense of the city.
        • 1776 May: Panic sweeps the city of Charles Town at the first offshore sighting of a British armada carrying over 3,000 British regulars.
        • 1776 June: Col. William Moultrie and his patriot troops hastily construct a fort from palmetto logs on the south end of Sullivan's Island.
        • 1776 June 28: First major naval battle of the Revolution. Fleet of 11 British warships and 1,500 troops under Sir Peter Parker attack Ft. Moultrie and are repulsed.
        • ◊ 1776 July 4; The 13 colonies declare independence from Britain. The signers of the Declaration of Independence from South Carolina were Edward Rutledge, Thomas Heyward, Thomas Lynch and Arthur Middleton.
        • 1779: Spain, the United States' unsung ally, asks Britain to recognize the independence of the thirteen United States of America and to cease hostilities. Spain contributes over $5,000,000 to the revolution.
        • 1779, June 21: Spain declares war on Great Britain.
        • 1779 Nov-Dec: Unable to win a decisive battle in the northern states, the British prepare a massive combined sea and land expedition against Charles Town, under the command of Vice Admiral Mariot Arbuthnot, General Sir Henry Clinton, and Lord Cornwallis.
        • 1779 Dec: General Washington orders 1,400 Continentals to join the forces of General Benjamin Lincoln defending Charles Town.
        • 1780 Feb 10: British troops under Sir Henry Clinton land on Seabrook Island, and make preparations to lay siege to the Charles Town. South Carolina Gazette editor Peter Timothy takes a spyglass up the steeple of St. Michael's Church and reports seeing smoke from hundreds of British campfires.
        • 1780 March: British warships sweep past the forts guarding the harbor entrance to Charles Town and anchor within broadside range of the city. The British Army crosses the Ashley River and establishes a line of breastworks 1,800 yards north of Charles Town's defensive line, completing their encirclement of the civilian population.
        • 1780 March 29: British siege of Charles Town begins; lasts 40 days.
        • 1780 May 12: After a bitter struggle, General Benjamin Lincoln surrenders Charles Town to the British, their greatest prize of the Revolutionary War. Two-and-a-half year occupation begins.
        • 1780, Aug. 27: Persecution by the British intensifies, as prominent citizens are targeted and arrested for promoting resistance. To gain their release, they must agree to sign an Oath of Loyalty to the Crown.
        • 1780, Sept 3: Henry Laurens is captured by the British on his way to the Netherlands and is imprisoned in the Tower of London. Laurens was a merchant and rice planter, who served as a delegate to the Continental Congress, the third President of the Second Continental Congress, the Vice-President of South Carolina, and a diplomat.
        • 1781, January 17: American Revolutionary forces under Brigadier General Daniel Morgan defeat the British forces commanded by Colonel Banastre Tarleton at the Battle of Cowpens.
        • 1781, May 22 to June 19: Second Battle of Ninety-Six.
        • 1781, Aug 4: Col. Isaac Hayne, a Revolutionary leader of the South Carolina Militia, is hanged by the British just beyond the city limits of Charles Town.
        • 1781, September 28: Generals George Washington and Jean-Baptiste Rochambeau, along with La Fayette's troops and 3,000 of de Grasse's men, arrive at Yorktown. With them is the 2nd Canadian Regiment led by Brigadier General Moses Hazen. In all, there are approximately 17,000 men converging on the camp established by Cornwallis and the siege of Yorktown begins.
        • 1781, October 19: General Cornwallis surrenders.
        • 1781, Nov-Dec: American forces under Gen. Nathanael Greene retake most of South Carolina and advance to within 15 miles of Charles Town.
        • 1781: December: When news reaches London of Washington's defeat of Cornwallis at Yorktown, the British Parliament resolves to bring the war to an end.
        • 1783: The Treaty of Paris is signed formally ending the American War of Independence. The United States was bounded by British Canada on the north, Spanish Florida on the south, and the Mississippi River on the west.
      • 1783: Charles Town is renamed Charleston.
      • 1786: General Assembly passes legislation to create a new capital city, Columbia.
      • 1788, May 23: South Carolina Ratifies the United States Constitution to becomes the 8th state.
      • 1790: The capital of South Carolina is moved from Charleston to Columbia.
      • 1791 May 2: President George Washington arrives in Charleston for a week's visit. His itinerary includes lodging at the Daniel Heyward House (87 Church St.), a reception at the Old Exchange, and a social evening at McCrady's Longroom (153 East Bay). For more information on his visit to Charleston, click here.
      • 1793; Eli Whitney invents cotton gin.
      • 1794 - 1798: A new fort is built on Sullivan's Island to protect Charleston Harbor. The new Fort Moultrie was part of the First American System of Fortifications. It is a five-sided structure made with earth and timber and was 17 feet high. The fort was destroyed by the Hurricane of 1804.[1]
      • 1812 - 1815: War of 1812. South Carolina provides at least 5,000 troops, raised a half-million dollars for self defense and to improve the costal defenses. There were no major battles fought in South Carolina during the War of 1812.
      • 1806: Columbia, SC incorporated and becomes first planned state capital in the U.S.
      • 1809: The third Fort Moultrie built with bricks is completed on Sullivan's Island to protect Charleston Harbor .[2]
      • 1812: The Lighthouse at entrance to Winyah Bay is operational. The Lighthouse has a fourth order, Fresnel lens on a 87 foot tower made of brick.
      • 1820: Harriet Tubman is born in Dorchester County, Maryland.
      • 1828 - 1834: Daniel A. Payne opens and operates a school for black youth in Charleston, SC in 1828. The city forced the school to close in 1834.
      • 1829: Construction begins on Fort Sumter, a masonry coastal fortification located in Charleston harbor, South Carolina. Fort Sumter is named after General Thomas Sumter.
      • 1830, Dec. 25: The Best Friend built for the South Carolina Canal and Rail Road Company by the West Point Foundry of New York, begins running a route between Charleston and Hamburg, SC, serving as America's first steam locomotive to carry passengers in regular service.
      • 1838, Jan. 30: Osceola, Chief of the Seminoles, dies while in prison at Ft. Moultrie.
      • 1843, March 20: The Citadel Military College of South Carolina opens for its first class of cadets.
      • 1846, April; The Mexican-American War ignited as a result of disputes over claims to Texas boundaries. The outcome of the war fixed Texas' southern boundary at the Rio Grande River. Stephen Watts Kearny annexed New Mexico to U.S.[Source]
      • 1848, February 2; The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is signed. The treaty established the U.S. - Mexican border of the Rio Grande River, and ceded to the United States the present-day states of California, Nevada, Utah, New Mexico, most of Arizona and Colorado, and parts of Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Wyoming. In return, Mexico received US $18,250,000 ($461,725,000 [2011])-less than half the amount the U.S. had attempted to offer Mexico for the land before the opening of hostilities-and the U.S. agreed to assume $3.25-million ($82,225,000 [2011]) in debts that the Mexican government owed to U.S. citizens. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified that, language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants being considered as inviolable.[Source]
      • 1850: Celia Mann, a slave who acquired her freedom in Charleston, SC, walked to Columbia and purchased a cottage (now known as the Mann-Simons Cottage ) about 1850. Celia and her descendents owned the house until 1970. The cottage reflects the entrepreneurial spirit of free blacks, the Mann-Simons family were bakers, tailors, seamstresses, and musicians, and in the 20th century, educators.
      • 1860: Secession Convention opens at First Baptist Church in Columbia.
      • 1860: South Carolina became the first state to secede from the Union. About 63,000 men from the state served in the Confederate armed forces.
      • 1861 - 1865 American Civil War. [More Information]
        • 1860: Six days after South Carolina seceded, U.S. Army Major Robert Anderson abandoned the indefensible Fort Moultrie and secretly relocated his 85 men, two companies of the 1st U.S. Artillery, to Fort Sumter. Anderson had been appointed to command the Charleston garrison that fell because of rising tensions.
        • 1861, January 10: First Shot of the Civil War fired at the Union Ship "Star of the West" as it attempted to reinforce Major Anderson at Fort Sumter.
        • 1861, February 18: Jefferson Davis becomes the President of the Confederate States of America.
        • 1861, March 4: Abraham Lincoln is inaugurated as the 16th President of the United States.
        • 1861, April 6: Lincoln informs Governor Francis Pickens that Fort Sumter will be re-provisioned and that if the effort is resisted the fort will be reinforced.
        • 1861, April 9: The Confederate cabinet at a meeting in Montgomery, AL, decides to open fire on Ft. Sumter. President Jefferson Davis orders General P. T. Beauregard to "reduce" Fort Sumter.
        • 1861, April 12: Bombardment of Fort Sumter begins at 4:30 A.M. The bombardment lasts 33 hours and the Confederates fire 3,000 shells. No one on either side is killed and only one injured at Fort Sumter. Edmund Ruffin is credited with the first shot. Captain James fired the signal shell from a ten inch mortar on Johnson's Island but the first gun from the iron clad battery on Morris Island is generally considered the first shot. Roger A. Pryor declined the honor of firing the signal shell. Ruffin later wraps himself in the Confederate Flag and commits suicide.
        • 1861, April 13: Fort Sumter surrenders at 2:30 PM on Saturday. Major Robert Anderson is allowed to fire a 100 gun salute to the United States Flag but only 50 guns are fired. One of the guns explodes and Private Daniel Hough is killed and five are injured. Some authors say two were killed. Perhaps one died of wounds.
        • 1861, April 14: Fort Sumter is evacuated at noon. The commanding officer at Fort Sumter is Major Robert Anderson and the artillery officer is Abner Doubleday. (Doubleday will be credited, erroneously, with the invention of baseball in 1839 in Cooperstown N.Y. by the 1908 Spalding Commission.)
        • 1861, April 15: Lincoln calls for 75,000 volunteers for three months service.
        • 1861: Construction begins on the Confederate submarine, H.L. Hunley in Mobile, Alabama. For more information; visit the Online Library; SHIPS of the CONFEDERATE STATES, Submarine H.L. Hunley (1863-1864).
        • 1861, December 11: Federal forces under General Stevens occupy Beaufort, SC.
        • 1862, January 1: Battle of Port Royal Ferry.
        • 1862, June 16: In early June Major General David Hunter transports Horatio G. Wright's and Isaac I. Stevens's Union divisions under immediate direction of Brigadier General Henry Benham to James Island where they entrenched at Grimball's Landing near the southern flank of the Confederate defenses around Charleston, SC. Without orders, Benham launched an unsuccessful frontal assault against Fort Lamar at Secessionville.
        • 1862, June 21: Federal forces besieging Charleston mounted an amphibious expedition to cut the Charleston & Savannah Railroad. The 55th Pennsylvania landed from the gunboat USS Crusader and transport Planter near Simmon's Bluff on Wadmelaw Sound, surprising and burning an encampment of the 16th South Carolina Infantry (battle of Simmon's Bluff). The Confederates scattered, and the Federals returned to their ships, despite their victory, the Federals abandoned their raid on the railroad.
        • 1862, September 22: President Abraham Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation declaring the freedom of all slaves in any state of the Confederate States of America that did not return to Union control by January 1, 1863.
        • 1863, July 1-3: Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
        • 1863, July 10-11: Union artillery on Folly Island, south of Charleston, together with Rear Admiral John Dahlgren's fleet of ironclads opened fire on Confederate defenses of Morris Island. The bombardment provided cover for Brigadier General George C. Strong's brigade, which crossed Light House Inlet and land by boats on the southern tip of Morris Island. Strong's troops advance and capture several batteries and manage to get within range of Confederate Fort Wagner. At dawn, July 11, Strong attacked Fort Wagner. Soldiers of the 7th Connecticut reach the parapet but they are unsupported and are thrown back.
        • 1863, July 13-16: Draft Riots in New York City.
        • 1863, July 18: A second assault is made on Fort Wagner. The 54th Massachusetts Regiment (colored), led by Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, were the lead attackers for the union. Three Union brigades managed to occupy a portion of the walls, but they were forced to withdraw after an hour of fierce hand-to-hand combat where almost every officer was killed. The Union forces suffered around 1,600 casualties and the Confederate garrison fewer than 200. Although a tactical defeat, the battle proved to be a political victory for the Union since the valor of the 54th against hopeless odds proved the worth of black soldiers.
        • 1863, August 12: the Hunley arrived by train in Charleston.
        • 1863, August 17-August 23: Federal batteries erected on Morris Island opened fire on August 17 and continued their bombardment of Fort Sumter and the Charleston defenses until August 23.
        • 1863, September 7-8: Advancing Federal siege works force the Confederate to evacuate Fort Wagner and Battery Gregg. Federal troops then occupied all of Morris Island. On September 8, a party of about 400 marines and sailors storm Fort Sumter. The attack is repulsed by the Confederates.
        • 1863, September 19 - 20: Confederate Victory at the Battle of Chickamauga, GA. The battle is the most significant Union defeat in the Western Theater of the American Civil War.
        • 1863, November 15: William T. Sherman arrives in Chattanooga, TN.
        • 1863, November 19: President Abraham Lincoln delivers the Gettysburg Address at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
        • 1864, November 28: Hilton Head Island SC. A Union expeditionary force under Major General John P. Hatch steams up the Broad River to cut the Charleston & Savannah Railroad near Pocotaligo, SC, and disembark at Boyd's Landing and marched inland.
        • 1864, November 30: Major General Hatch's forces encounter a Confederate force of regulars and militia under Colonel Charles J. Colcock at Honey Hill. Determined attacks by U.S. Colored Troops (including the 54th Massachusetts) failed to capture the Confederate entrenchments or cut the railroad. Hatch retired after dark.
        • 1864, February 17: The submarine H.L. Hunley sinks the Union ship USS Housatonic at the entrance to Charleston, South Carolina harbor. The Hunley sinks after the attack.
        • 1964, May 5: CSS Albemarle fought seven blockading Union ships to a draw at the mouth of the Roanoke River. Federals recaptured the converted steamer Bombshell. USS Sassacus was badly damaged.
        • 1864, December 21: United States troops occupy Savannah, GA.
        • 1865, Feb. 23: Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman marches through Middleton Place Plantation, leaving it in ruins and forcing the evacuation of Fort Sumter. The plantation was established in 1741 by Henry Middleton, President of the First Continental Congress, and was home to generations of the family including Henry's son, Arthur Middleton, a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence; Arthur Middleton's son, Henry Middleton, Governor of South Carolina and U.S. Minister to Russia; and his son in turn, Williams Middleton, who signed the Ordinance of Secession.
        • 1865, April 8: General Robert E. Lee surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Station, VA.
        • 1865, April 14: Lincoln shot by John Wilks Booth at Fords Theater on Good Friday.
        • 1865, April 14: General Robert Anderson raises the same flag over Fort Sumter that he lowered 4 years before.
        • 1865: Major General Tecumseh Sherman marches into Columbia, SC. The city was half destroyed by fire.
        • 1865 May 26: Civil War ends; when General Kirby Smith surrendered Confederate forces west of the Mississippi River.
      • 1865, December 6; The title="Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution" target="_blank">Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified by Georgia, thus officially abolishing slavery.
      • 1868: South Carolina was readmitted to the Union.
      • 1886, Aug. 31: A Major earthquake devastates the Lowcountry. The earthquake, which measures 7.5 on the Richter scale, causes more than 80 deaths and $6 million in damage.
      • 1870's: Fort Moultrie is modernized with huge rifled cannon and deep concrete bunkers.
      • 1876: A new Morris Island light station at the entrance to Charleston Harbor is built. The tower is 161 feet tall made of dressed stone and painted with white & black bands. The light is a first order, Fresnel lens and was deactivated in 1962.
      • 1896; Plessy v. Ferguson decision by U.S. Supreme Court establishes "separate but equal" doctrine in racial policy.
      • 1898, February 15; The USS Maine (ACR-1) exploded and sinks in Havana Harbor, Cuba.
      • 1898; Spanish-American War.
      • 1899; The boll weevil crosses the Rio Grande from Mexico.

       


      1900 - 2000

       


      • 1901: Charleston Naval Shipyard is established on the Cooper River in North Charleston, SC.
      • 1904: Carnegie library construction begins at Benedict College in Columbia, South Carolina.
      • 1909: The Charleston Navy Yard, a U.S. Navy ship building and repair facility, located along the west bank of the Cooper River, in North Charleston, South Carolina begins operations and continued as a navy facility until 1996.
      • 1910, March 1: The Battleship USS South Carolina (BB-26) is commissioned. Built in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the USS South Carolina is 452.8 feet long and displaces 16,000 tons. Her main armament consists of 8 12 inch guns.
      • 1914 - 1920: The First World War. [More Information] . During World War I, a small garrison manned the two twelve-inch rifles at Battery Huger at Fort Sumter. Battery Huger is named for South Carolina Revolutionary War Brigadier General Isaac Huger, and was built in 1898-99 in response to the Spanish-American War.
        • 1915, May 7; The British ocean liner RMS Lusitania is torpedoed by German U-boat U-20, 128 Americans were killed.[Source]
        • 1915, November 1: Parris Island was officially designated a Marine Corps Recruit Depot and training. Parris Island is still the Marine Corps Recruit Depot and training center today.
        • 1917; Fort Jackson, SC, the nation's largest U.S. Army training facility, established to prepare soldiers for World War I.
        • 1917, Jan 11; The Zimmermann Telegram offers a military alliance with Mexico, in the event of the United States entering World War I against Germany.[Source]
        • 1917, Jan 31; Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare.[Source]
        • 1917, February 3: US severs diplomatic ties with Germany.
        • 1917, April 6: The US declares war on Germany.[Source]
        • 1917, June 2: Fort Jackson, the nation's largest U.S. Army training facility, established to prepare soldiers for World War I.
        • 1917, July 18: The 30th Division, Old Hickory, was created.
        • 1917, August 3: The 30th Division assembled at Camp Sevier, Greenville, S.C.
        • 1918, March 3: Russia and Germany sign an armistice at Brest-Litovsk.
        • 1918, May 28: US forces make their first offensive, at Cantigny, France.
        • 1918, July 9: The 30th Division was committed to the Front Line.
        • 1918, November 11: Armistice Day. At the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month, Germany signs an armistice with the Allies. The war is officially over. More than 8.5 million have been killed and over twice as many wounded from across the globe. New technology has been created, America has risen to prominence as an economic power and new countries are forming in Europe and the Middle East.
      • 1918: Flu Epidemic infected 500 million people across the world, and killed 50 to 100 million. (see 1918 flu pandemic for more information.)[Source]
      • 1920: Susan Pringle Frost helps form the Society for the Preservation of Old Dwellings, marking the formal beginning of organized historic preservation in Charleston, SC.
      • 1925: The Charleston dance craze hits Charleston and quickly spreads to the rest of the country. It is based on a West African rhythm and was popularized in U.S. mainstream dance music by a 1923 tune called "The Charleston", which was written by composer/pianist James P. Johnson.
      • 1929 - 1940; The Great Depression and New Deal.
        • The beginning of the Great Depression in the United States is associated with the stock market crash on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. The depression had devastating effects in both the industrialized countries and those which exported raw materials.
        • The New Deal is the title President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to a sequence of programs and promises he initiated between 1933 and 1938 with the goal of giving relief, reform and recovery to the people and economy of the United States during the Great Depression.
      • 1934: Composer George Gershwin visits Charleston to research and write "Porgy and Bess", the first American opera.
      • 1931, September 18: Japan invades Manchuria.
      • 1935: The Soviet Union declares that the fascist states of Germany and Japan are the enemies.
      • 1935, October 3; The Second Italo-Abyssinian War. Italian armed forces from Eritrea invaded Ethiopia without a declaration of war. In response Ethiopia declares war on Italy. On October 7, the League of Nations declared Italy to be the aggressor, and started the slow process of imposing limited sanctions on Italy.
      • 1939 - 1945: World War II. [More Information]
        • Axis powers (Germany, Italy, Japan, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria) versus Allies (U.S., Britain, France, USSR, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Greece, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, South Africa, Yugoslavia).
        • 1939: Germany invades Poland.

        • 1940, September 16: 30th Division activated and called to Federal active duty at Ft. Jackson, S.C. where the Division trained until October 1942.
        • 1941, November 5: The United States Naval Ammunition Depot at Charleston, SC is opened. The facility was used as an ammunition collection and distribution point during World War II. Ammunition manufactured throughout the country was sent to the base and then loaded onto ships being built at the Charleston Naval Shipyard. After the war, the station oversaw the removal of ordnance from deactivated ships.
        • There was minimal activity at the base for the next several years.
        • 1941, December 7: Japan attacks Pearl Harbor.
        • 1942, April: American and Filipino prisoners of war are forced to endure World War II Bataan Death March in the Philippines.
        • 1942: The light cruiser, USS Columbia (CL-56) is commissioned. The main armament USS Columbia is of the 12 - 6 inch 47 Caliber Guns in 4 Turrets and the secondary armament of 12 - 5 inch 38 Caliber Guns in 4 Turrets. She was decommissioned and placed in reserve at Philadelphia 30 November 1946, and is Sold for scrap February 18, 1959.
        • 1945, April 12: President Franklin D. Roosevelt dies at Warm Springs, Georgia.
        • 1945, May 8: Victory in Europe, V-E Day.
        • 1945, September 2: Victory over Japan, V-J Day Japanese sign surrender terms aboard battleship Missouri (BB-63).
      • 1947: The Historic Charleston Foundation is established.
      • 1948: Fort Sumter becomes a U.S. National Monument.
      • 1950 - 1953; The Korean War is fought in Korea.
      • 1954: Strom Thurmond becomes first U.S. Senator elected by a write-in vote.
      • 1954, November 4: The Savannah River Plant located on the Savannah River becomes the world's first operational full-scale PUREX separation plant. PUREX (Plutonium and Uranium EXtraction) extracted plutonium and uranium products from materials irradiated in the reactors.
      • 1962: Cuban Missile Crisis.
        • September 8: First consignment of SS-4 MRBMs arrived in Cuba from the Soviet Union. The range of the SS-4 is 2,080 km. (1100 nautical miles, about 1266 statute miles).
        • September 16: Second consignment of SS-4 MRBMs and SS-5s with a 4,000 kilometer-range (2,400 statute miles) arrived in Cuba.
        • October 1: Four attack submarines -- B-4, B-36, B-59, and B-130--of the Soviet Sixty-Ninth Submarine Brigade depart from Sayda Bay, near Murmank, heading for Mariel Bay, Cuba. The submarines are of the "Foxtrot" (F-class) category, as designated by NATO. Armed with nuclear-tipped torpedoes and supplied with tropical clothing, the submarines and their crews have orders to sail covertly to Cuba and establish a base at Mariel.
        • October 22: President John F. Kennedy delivers a televised address announcing the discovery of the missile installations. He proclaimed that the United States would "...regard any nuclear missile launched from the island of Cuba against any nation in the Western Hemisphere as an attack by the Soviet Union on the United States, requiring a full retaliatory response..." He also placed a naval "quarantine" on Cuba to prevent further Soviet shipments of military weapons from arriving there.
        • October 24: Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara informs President Kennedy that a Soviet submarine is close to two Soviet ships that the U.S. Navy intends to intercept.[3] He stresses the danger of the situation, but assures Kennedy that the Navy is prepared. The USS Essex group was instructed to block the progress of the submarine and was authorized to use "small explosives" if necessary. Unbeknownst to the Navy, the submarine carried a nuclear-tipped torpedo with orders that allowed its use if the submarine was "hulled" [4]. At 10:25 a.m. John McCone received an intelligence message and announced that the ships had gone dead in the water.
        • October 28: a new message from Nikita Khrushchev is broadcast on Radio Moscow. Khrushchev stated "the Soviet government, in addition to previously issued instructions on the cessation of further work at the building sites for the weapons, has issued a new order on the dismantling of the weapons which you describe as 'offensive' and their crating and return to the Soviet Union."
      • 1975, January 25: California-class, nuclear powered guided missile cruiser, USS South Carolina (CGN-37) is commissioned. She is 597 feet long and displaces 10,500 toms. Her Armament is two 20 mm Phalanx CIWS (Close-in weapon system), 1 ASROC missile launcher (Anti-Submarine ROCket), 2 Mk 13 missile launchers for standard missiles and Mark 46 torpedoes. The USS South Carolina (CGN-37) will be decommissioned July 30, 1999.
      • 1989, Sept. 21: Hurricane Hugo pounds the Charleston area, damaging 80 percent of the structures on Sullivan's Island and Folly Island and many homes in the Historic District. The category-4 storm caused nearly $2.8 billion worth of damage.
      • 1995, May: Author Clive Cussler announces that his divers have located the wreck of the Confederate Submarine H. L. Hunley in the waters off Sullivan's Island.
      • 2003: Congaree Swamp National Monument designated South Carolina's first National Park and renamed Congaree National Park.
      • 2006: Richland County is awarded "All America City"; by the National Civic League.




    • For more information about the History of South Carolina, visit the following sites:




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      Columbia, SC Weather Information



      Monthly average highs and low temperatures and the average amount of precipitation for Columbia, SC.
      Data from COLUMBIA UNIV OF SC Weather station, 1.66 miles from Columbia.

       

      Jan

      Feb

      Mar

      Apr

      May

      Jun

      Jul

      Aug

      Sep

      Oct

      Nov

      Dec

      Annual

      Avg. High

      58.1 °

      63.2 °

      71.3 °

      79.5 °

      86.3 °

      92.0 °

      95.2 °

      93.3 °

      88.3 °

      78.7 °

      69.2 °

      60.7 °

      78.0 °

      Avg. Low

      36.5 °

      39.5 °

      46.5 °

      53.1 °

      61.4 °

      68.2 °

      71.9 °

      70.9 °

      65.7 °

      53.8 °

      45.4 °

      38.7 °

      54.3 °

      Mean

      47.3 °

      51.4 °

      58.9 °

      66.3 °

      73.9 °

      80.1 °

      83.6 °

      82.1 °

      77.0 °

      66.3 °

      57.3 °

      49.7 °

      66.2 °

      Avg. Precip.

      4.57 in

      3.75 in

      4.56 in

      2.96 in

      3.21 in

      5.19 in

      5.20 in

      4.51 in

      3.83 in

      2.89 in

      3.11 in

      3.36 in

      47.14 in


      Columbia, SC climate is hot and humid during summer with temperatures in the upper 80's and low 90's. Winter temperatures tend to be in the 40's.


      The warmest month of the year is July with an average maximum temperature of 95.20° Fahrenheit, while the coldest month of the year is January with an average minimum temperature of 36.50° Fahrenheit.


      The average annual precipitation at Columbia, SC, is 47.14 Inches. Rainfall is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year. July, with an average rainfall of 5.20 inches, is the wettest month of the year.







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      Historical Weather data



      You can find a general description of the weather in SC and the maximum highs and lows for the state of SC on the South Carolina State Climatology Office web site. The following information is from the South Carolina State Climatology web site.





      South Carolina Notable Severe Weather Events







      For more information about the climate:



      Droughts


      Drought Severity Classification

       

      Ranges

      Category

      Description

      Possible Impacts

      Palmer Drought Index

      CPC Soil
      Moisture Model
      (Percentiles)

      USGS Weekly Streamflow
      (Percentiles)

      Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI)

      Objective Short and Long-term Drought Indicator Blends (Percentiles)

      D0

      Abnormally
      Dry

      Going into drought: short-term dryness slowing planting, growth of crops or pastures. Coming out of drought: some lingering water deficits;  pastures or crops not fully recovered

      -1.0 to -1.9

      21-30

      21-30

      -0.5 to -0.7

      21-30

      D1

      Moderate Drought

      Some damage to crops, pastures; streams, reservoirs, or wells low, some water shortages developing or imminent; voluntary water-use restrictions requested

      -2.0 to -2.9

      11-20

      11-20

      -0.8 to -1.2

      11-20

      D2

      Severe
      Drought

      Crop or pasture losses likely;  water shortages common; water restrictions imposed

      -3.0 to -3.9

      6-10

      6-10

      -1.3 to -1.5

      6-10

      D3

      Extreme Drought

      Major crop/pasture losses;  widespread water shortages or restrictions

      -4.0 to -4.9

      3-5

      3-5

      -1.6 to -1.9

      3-5

      D4

      Exceptional Drought

      Exceptional and widespread crop/pasture losses; shortages of water in reservoirs, streams, and wells creating water emergencies

      -5.0 or less

      0-2

      0-2

      -2.0 or less

      0-2



      Historically, droughts have had severe adverse impacts on the people and economy of South Carolina. Periods of dry weather have occurred in each decade since 1818 (National Water Summary 1988-1989 Hydrologic Events and Floods and Droughts, 1991). The earliest records of drought indicate that some streams in South Carolina went dry in 1818, and fish in smaller streams died from lack of water in 1848. The most damaging droughts in recent history occurred in 1954, 1986, and 1998-2002. Less severe droughts were reported in 1988, 1990, 1993, and 1995. The adverse impacts on the people and economy were made especially clear during the drought of 1998-2002 that impacted agriculture, forestry, tourism, power generation, public water supply, and fisheries





      Droughts included in the National Water Summary 1988-89[5]

      • 1925; State wide drought, driest calendar year on record in Asheville (1925); record daily minimum discharge for South Fork New River and French Broad River.
      • 1930-1935; State wide drought, record minimum annual discharge on the Lumber River at Boardman in 1934.
      • NOAA Drought January 1934

      • 1940-43; State wide drought, most severe in Blue Ridge.
        NOAA Drought May 1941

      • 1950-57; Persistent drought state wide. Worst conditions in fall of 1954. Minimum daily discharge of record at more than 25 gaging stations.
      • 1966-71; The drought mainly affected the Piedmont and Coastal Plain. Most critical during Aug. and Sept. 1968.
      • 1980 - 82; Streamflow less than normal, but not extreme state wide.
      • 1985 - 88; Most severe in Blue Ridge Water-use restrictions in 1986 and 1988 in many communities across the State.


      For more information:



      Tornadoes




      Enhanced Fujita Scale
      EF0 EF1 EF2 EF3 EF4 EF5


      The following statistics where compiled from "The Tornado Project" for the time period of 1950-04-27 - 2014-10-14.

      Intensity Number Fatalities
      F0 383 0
      F1 378 7
      F2 131 19
      F3 28 6
      F4 10 31
      F5 0 0

       

      Between 04/27/1950 - 10/14/2014 South Carolina has had 940 tornadoes killing 63 people and injuring 1710 people. The longest path for a tornado in that state occurred on 04-08-1957 when a F4 tornado touched down north of Kershaw, SC and stayed on the ground for 121.4 miles, traveling to just south of Roseboro, NC. The deadliest tornado in this time period occurred on March 31, 1973 when a F4 touchdown east of Calhoun Falls and passed north of Abbeville, SC.[Source]




      • 1924, April 30 - The highest tornado death toll in South Carolina's history occurred on this date when two tornadoes struck. The paths of both were unusually long; each over 100 miles long. Together they killed 77 persons, injured 778 more, and destroyed 465 homes and many other buildings resulting in many millions of dollars of damage. One tornado remained on the ground from Anderson County to York County; the other, which as been named "The Horrell Hill Tornado", was the more destructive of the two. Its path was 135 miles from Aiken County to Florence County.

      • 1957, April 2-5; The April 1957 Dallas tornado outbreak struck most of the Southern United States from April 2 to April 5, 1957, producing 57 tornadoes. Twenty-one (21) people were killed by this outbreak in four states, 1 in Mississippi, 2 in Georgia, 6 in Oklahoma and 12 in Texas. On April 2, a F3 tornado hit a densely populated area of the Dallas–Fort Worth metropolitan area, killing 10 people and injuring 200 or more. The states affected by the Early-April 1957 tornado outbreak sequence were Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Virginia.
      • 1973, March 31 - A F4 killed 7 and injured 30 in the Abbeville and Greenwood Counties.[Source]

      • 1984 March 28 - The second highest loss of life from tornadoes occurred when 11 tornadoes touched down along a narrow band that extended from Anderson County through Marlboro County. These tornadoes caused 15 deaths, 448 injuries, and damage of over $100 million. These tornadoes also caused several other storm related fatalities.

      • 1992, Nov. 21-23; The November 1992 tornado outbreak struck large parts of the eastern and Midwestern. The storm spawned 95 tornadoes, 6 of them F4s. There were 26 fatalities and 641 injuries in Alabama, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Ohio, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia. The tornado outbreak began on November 21 with a cluster of 6 tornadoes (ranging from F1 to F4) intensities that struck parts of the Houston, TX, area. There were 12 fatalities and 122 Injuries on Nov. 21, when devastating, long-tracked (128 miles), violent F4 tornado began near Hopewell, MS, and moved northeast and ending west of Sherwood. During this outbreak, there were 4 confirmed tornadoes in South Carolina resulting in 1 death.[Source][S-2]

      • 1994, August 16 - An outbreak of 22 confirmed tornadoes occurred when the remnants of Tropical Storm Beryl merged with a cold front. The tornadoes damaged homes and buildings in a very narrow band running north from Bamberg County through Lancaster and York Counties. One tornado hit the Town of Lexington's central business district. There were no deaths, at least 40 injuries, and over $50 million in damage.

      • 2004, Sept 6-7 - Tropical Storm Frances triggered a record 47 tornadoes as it tracked up the spine of the Appalachians. The National Weather Service, using the F0-F5 Fujita scale, identified 26 F0s, 17 F1s, 3 F2s and 1 F3 during the 2-day period. 43 tornadoes touched down on September 7, setting a new one day record. The 47 tornadoes caused widespread damage in the Low Country, Midlands and Pee Dee. Sumter County experienced the worst damage. An F2 destroyed 9 Sumter County homes, damaged 55 homes, injured 3 people and caused over $1.7 million dollars worth of damage. Kershaw County was struck by the F3 tornado which demolished several cinder block stables and deftly picked up a large horse trailer and placed it on the roof of another stable. This record setting tornado outbreak injured 13 and inflicted $2.77 million in total state-wide damages.

      • 2007, Feb 28 - March 1 - The February-March 2007 Tornado Outbreak affected Florida, Kansas, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Illinois, Mississippi, Alabama, Kentucky, Georgia, South Carolina and North Carolina. There were 55 confirmed tornadoes, 3 EF3s and 3 EF4s with 19 fatalities. An EF4 struck the Enterprise, Alabama, high school killing 9 and injuring 50. One person was also killed in Millers Ferry, Alabama by an EF4. 1 person was killed in Caulfield, Missouri. In Georgia there was 1 Death and 4 Injuries in Reynolds, 2 Deaths and 11 Injuries in Americus and 6 Deaths 3 Injuries in the Newton area.[Source]

      • 2009, April 9-10 - The April 2009 tornado outbreak affected Oklahoma, Texas, Arkansas, Missouri, Louisiana, Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Kentucky, South Carolina and North Carolina. There were 85 confirmed tornadoes, 9 EF3s and 1 EF4. There were 5 deaths caused by this outbreak two in Tennessee and 3 in Arkansas. An EF3 tornado hit the Mena, Arkansas area killing three people; an EF4 tornado hit Murfreesboro, Tennessee killing two people.[Source]

      • 2011, April 14-16 - The April 14-16, 2011 tornado outbreak affected Oklahoma, Arkansas, Kansas, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Missouri, Illinois, North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia. There were 162 confirmed tornadoes, 14 EF3s and 43 fatalities.[Source]



      For more information:


      Hurricanes / Tropical cyclone




       

      Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale
      Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 Category 5
      Related classifications
      Tropical storm: Tropical depression
      Rollover for details


      • Hurricane Hugo - category: 4. Hugo crossed into South Carolina coast near the Isle of Palms on September 22, 1989. Surface winds were recorded at 138 miles per hour, with gusts of 160+ miles per hour. The National Weather Service at Charleston recorded a minimum barometric pressure of 27.85 inches. Damage to coastal and inland properties, utilities, agriculture, timber and commerce exceed $6 billion. 50,000 - 70,000 people were left homeless and 26 people were killed.


           ◊ NOAA
           ◊ Wikipedia
           ◊ National Hurricane Center
      • Hurricane Gracie - category: 3. Hurricane Gracie: On September 29, 1959, Gracie made landfall between Charleston and Savannah, Georgia. Winds reached 140 mph and tides reached 8 ft. Damage was estimated at $20 million (1959 dollars), and seven lives were lost.
           ◊ Beaufort County, SC
           ◊ CHC - Canada

      • Hurricane Hazel - category 4. Hazel caused $27 million (1954 dollars) in damage on October 14, 1954 after moving parallel to the coast and making landfall near Little River South Carolina. Winds reached 106 mph and tides greater than 16 feet at Myrtle Beach. The heaviest damage in South Carolina was from Pawleys Island northward.
           ◊The Weather Channel
           ◊Affect on NC - NOAA
           ◊Affect on NC - National Weather Service, Raleigh NC
           ◊CNC - Canada

      • August 27, 1893 - Sea Island Hurricane - category 4. This un-named storm was the most deadly hurricane in South Carolina's history. This storm struck near Savannah, Georgia causing extensive flooding along the lower South Carolina coast. Winds of 120 miles per hour were measured at Charleston and Beaufort. More than 2,000 people drowned and damage estimates exceed $10 million (1893 dollars).
           ◊Victoriana.Com
           ◊Answers.com
           ◊ Economic history : the Sea Island hurricane of 1893



       

      For more information:



      Floods[5]



      USGC - Flood Mark
      • 1876, June: The flood on the French Broad River, named the “June Freshet,” it was exceeded only by the 1916 flood at Asheville.

      • 1908, Aug.: Haw, Cape Fear, and Neuse Rivers. Flood of record on Haw and upper Neuse Rivers; stage 34 feet over flood stage on Cape Fear River at Fayetteville.

      • 1916, July 14-16: Western one-third of State. Most extensive and destructive in State's history.

      • 1928, Aug. 15-16: Broad and French Broad Rivers. More than 10 inches of rain in 2 days.

      • 1928, Sept. 17-18: Southern Coastal Plain. Flood of record on Lumber River; Cape Fear River 30 feet above flood stage at Fayetteville.

      • 1933, Sept. 15-17: Middle and northern coast. Storm tides rose 2 feet above previous high-water marks in New Bern. Lives lost, 21; damage, $3 million.

      • 1940, Aug. 14-17 and 30: Blue Ridge and western Piedmont, Roanoke River. Floods of record in rivers of northern Blue Ridge province. Lives lost, 30-40; damage, S30 million.

      • 1945, Sept. 17: Coastal Plain and central Piedmont. Floods on upper Neuse, Haw, Cape Fear, Lumber, Rocky, and lower Pee Dee Rivers. Cape Fear River at Fayetteville was 34 feet above flood stage.

      • 1954, Oct. 15: Eastern Coastal Plain. Hurricane Hazel was the costliest storm in the State's history. Lives lost 19; damage, $ 125 million.

      • 1955, Aug. 12 and 17: Middle coast. Hurricanes Connie and Diane. Estuaries of Neuse and Pamlico Rivers hardest hit. Damage, $ 58 million.

      • 1964, Sept. 28, and Oct. 4: Southwestern Blue Ridge. Two floods on the upper French Broad, Little Tennessee, and Hiwassee Rivers caused damage of $ 2.7 million.

      • 1977, Nov. 6-7:. Northwestern Blue Ridge. Storm produced 8 to 14 inches of rain. Lives lost, 13; damage $ 50 million.

      • September 16, 1999: The remnants of Hurricane Floyd dumped up 15"-20" of rain along the coast triggering wide spread flooding along the South Carolina Coast. The heavy rains caused record flooding of the Waccamaw River. Over 1700 homes were damaged in Horry County. Three foot flood waters were reported in the vicinity of Murrell's Inlet. No flood related injuries were reported.

      • October 10-13, and October 22, 1990: The former was a result of the remnants of Hurricane Klaus and Tropical Storm Marco moving northwards along a stationary front. This flood caused 4 deaths in Kershaw County, when a dam burst sending water across a road trapping the people in their vehicle. Another death occurred in Spartanburg County, when a toddler drowned in a rain-swollen creek. As a result of the flooding, Aiken, Calhoun, Cherokee, Darlington, Edgefield, Florence, Kershaw, Lee, Orangeburg, Spartenburg, Sumter, and Union counties were declared federal disaster areas.

      • August 1908: The most extensive flooding in South Carolina history occurred on this date. All the major rivers of the state rose from 9 to 22 feet above flood stage.

      • June 1903: The highest number of people killed by floodwaters in South Carolina occurred on the Pacolet River, a tributary of the Broad River, when 60 to 80 people drowned in a flash flood.



      For more information:



      Winter Storms[6]



       

      Regional snowfall index (RSI)[Ref-1] [Ref-2]

      Category RSI Value Description
      1 1—2.999 Notable
      2 3—5.99 Significant
      3 6—9.99 Major
      4 10—17.99 Crippling
      5 18.0+ Extreme

       


      • 1989, December: Charleston experienced its first white Christmas on record. Other coastal locations had more than six inches of snow on the ground for several days.

      • 1899, Feb. 11; The Great Blizzard of 1899 was an unprecedented winter storm that affected the southern United States. Record low temperatures for February were reported across the US. Atlanta, Ga: -9 °F (-23 °C) all-time record low, Fort Logan, MT: -61 °F (-51 °C), Dallas, TX: -8 °F (-22 °C), all-time record low, Gainesville, FL: 6 °F (-14 °C) all-time record low, Harrison, AK: -24 °F (-31 °C), all-time record low, Raleigh, NC: -2 °F (-19 °C), Santuc, SC: -11 °F (-24 °C) and Marienville, PA: -40 °F and C.[11]


      • 1950, Nov. 24 - 30; The Great Appalachian Storm of November 1950 was a large extratropical cyclone that moved through the Eastern United States. The storm caused significant winds, heavy rains east of the Appalachians, and blizzard conditions along the western slopes of the mountain chain. The storm impacted 22 states, killing 353, injuring over 160, and creating US$66.7 million in damage (1950 dollars). All-time record lows for November were set at Asheville, NC, -5 °F (-21 °C), Wilmington, NC, 16 °F (-9 °C), Charleston, SC, (17°F), Greenville, SC, (11°F), Birmingham, AL. 5 °F (-15 °C), Mobile, AL, 22 °F (-6 °C) Montgomery, AL, 13 °F (-11 °C) Atlanta, GA, (-3°F), Columbus, GA, (10°F), Augusta, GA, (11°F), and Savannah, GA (15°F).[12]

      • 1973, February: The greatest 24-hour snowfall, 24 inches, was recorded at Rimini.

      • 1969, February: One of the most severe cases of ice accumulation from freezing rain took place, in Piedmont and Midlands counties. Timber losses were tremendous and power and telephone services were seriously disrupted over a large area.

      • 2000, Jan 24 - Feb. 1; January 2000 North American blizzard: Thirty-eight South Carolina counties were affected by the severe winter storms. Major Disaster Declaration was declared for South Carolina on January 31, 2000(DR-1313). North Carolina counties are blanketed by January 24-25's record-breaking snowfall. The Raleigh-Durham airport airport received 20.3 inches of snow.[7]

      • 2002, Dec. 4-6;A winter storm produced damaging ice accumulations from freezing rain and several inches of snow and sleet in various parts of the western Carolinas and extreme northeast Geogia.[8] Major Disaster Declaration declared on January 8, 2003, for six South Carolina counties (DR-1451).

      • 2004, Jan. 26-30;Severe Ice Storm, Major Disaster Declaration declared on February 13, 2004, for seventeen South Carolina counties (DR-1509).

      • 2005, Dec. 15-16; The December 2005 North American ice storm affceted a large portion of the Southern United States. The ice storm left more than a million people without power in and near the Appalachians, affceting 630,000 customers in Georgia, 358,000 in South Carolina, 328,000 in North Carolina and 13,000 in Virginia.[9] Major Disaster Declaration was declared for seven South Carolina counties on January 20, 2006 (DR-1625).

      • 2006, Nov 20 - Dec 1; The November 2006 nor'easter was a powerful extratropical cyclone that formed offshore of the Southeastern United States on November 20. The storm brought heavy rains, high winds, beach erosion, and coastal flooding to the Carolinas and southern New England. In addition, the earliest snowfall ever noted in both Charleston, South Carolina and Savannah, Georgia occurred on the southwest side of this cyclone. Over 10,000 were without power during the storm. On Nov 21, extreme southeast Georgia received 5 to 7 inches of snow. In South Carolina, 4.13 inches (105 mm) measured at Chester, and winds gusted to 44 mph (38 knots) at Folly Beach. Heavy rainfall fell throughout central and eastern North Carolina. The Raleigh-Durham International Airport set a record for its wettest November on record. Winds gusted to 70 knots (80 mph) at Alligator River, with numerous gusts above 50 knots (60 mph) throughout the Outer Banks.[13]


      • 2007, Jan 11-24; The January 2007 North American ice storm was a severe ice storm that affected a large of North America from the Rio Grande Valley in Texas to New England and southeastern Canada. The first wave occurred between Jan 11, 2007 through January 16. This was followed by a second wave in the Southern United States from Texas to the Carolinas from January 16 through January 18 and a third one that hit the southern Plains and mid-Atlantic states as well as Newfoundland and Labrador from January 19 to January 24. The storm resulted in at least 74 deaths across 12 U.S. states and 3 Canadian provinces, and caused hundreds of thousands of residents across the U.S and Canada to lose electric power. In Oklahoma, 40,000 customers lost power on Jan 12. After additional waves of ice and sleet, 120,000 customers were without power (60 000 of them for over a week). Freezing rain hit the Carolinas on Jan. 17th and 18th, leading to school closures in both states. In North Carolina police reported over 600 traffic accidents, including two resulting in fatalities. [14]

      • 2007, Feb. 12-15 - The February 2007 North America Winter Storm was a massive winter storm that began on Feb. 12, 2007 and lasted until on Feb. 14, producing heavy snowfalls across the Midwestern U.S. from Nebraska to Ohio and similar conditions across parts of the northeastern U.S., and into Canada and tornadoes across the southern US. Significant sleet and freezing rain fell across the southern Ohio Valley and affected portions of the east coast of the United States, including the cities of Boston, Baltimore, Washington, D.C., New York City and Philadelphia. The southern portion of the storm produced severe thunderstorms with numerous tornadoes reported. One tornado hit a subdivision of New Orleans. In total, this storm system was responsible for 37 deaths across 13 U.S. states and Canadian provinces of New Brunswick, Ontario and Quebec. On Tuesday, February 13, 2007, the storm produced 7 EF0, 9 EF1 and 3 EF2 tornadoes affecting Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina. NOAA classified the storm as a Category 3, “'Major” storm.[Source]

      • 2007, April 13-17 - The Spring Nor'easter of 2007 was a nor'easter that affected mainly the eastern parts of North America. The combined effects of high winds, heavy rainfall, and high tides led to flooding, storm damages, power outages, and evacuations, and disrupted traffic and commerce and resulted min at least 13 fatalities. There were 36 confirmed tornadoes in the Southern States, 15 EF0, 16 EF1, 4 EF2 and 1 EF3 in Sumter County, SC. Tornadoes struck Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, South Carolina and Texas.[Source]

      • 2010, Oct 23 - Nov 5 - The October 2010 North American storm complex was a Extratropical cyclone, Blizzard and Tornado outbreak. The storm brought a major serial derecho stretching from the Gulf Coast to the Great Lakes, a widespread tornado outbreak across the Southeast United States and Midwest and a blizzard across portions of the Canadian Prairies and the Dakotas. The heaviest snow fell in St. Louis County, Minnesota where 9 inches (22.5 cm) of snow fell. The storm produced 69 tornadoes, 8 rated as EF2s. Tornadoes struck Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, North Carolina, Ohio, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia and Wisconsin. No fatalities where reported.[Source]

      • 2011, Jan 8 - 13 - The January 8-13, 2011 North American Blizzard was a major nor'easter, winter storm, and a New England blizzard. The storm also affected the Southeastern regions of the United States. Jan 8 through Jan 10, the storm dropped snow and ice across Eastern Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, Georgia, South Carolina and North Carolina. Savoy, Massachusetts reported 40.5" of snow. Portions of Connecticut received 20 to 30" of snow.[Source]

      • 2014, Jan. 27-31; The January 2014 Gulf Coast winter storm was a winter storm that impacted the eastern and southeastern United States, as well as Mexico. Freezing rain and sleet were recorded in cites along the Gulf Coast including Houston, TX, New Orleans, LA, Mobile, AL and Tallahassee, FL. On Jan 27, warnings were issued for Atlanta'a south metro area, while the central region (from east to west) was placed under a winter weather advisory. At 3:38 AM, on Jan. 28, the winter storm warning was expanded northward. A tweet issued by the NWSFO in Peachtree City at 3:08 pm and repeated on the local news read: “Winter precip will make travel risky across GA midday Tues into Weds. Not a bad idea to stay off the roads if you're able!”. Many believed that the storm would not occur until midday and planned accordingly. The NWSFO was correct in its forecast, but the roads became slippery faster than anyone anticipated. Thinking they would have time to get home before the road condition deteriorated, many business and school systems planned to work a half day. The results was a higher than normal volume of traffic on the Atlanta roads and with the slippery conditions and hilly terrain in Atlanta, traffic stooped. Many people were not able to reach their homes and had to find shelter where they could. Coastal South Carolina got some of the freezing rain that closed bridges around Charleston, SC. The Outer Banks of North Carolina and the Tidewater region of southeastern Virginia received significant snows.[Source]<

      • 2014, Feb. 11-17; The North American winter storm of 2014, was a snow and ice storm that affected the American South and East Coast. Damage was estimated at $15 million+ and there were 22 fatalities. Four people died in traffic accidents in Texas due to ice, and in Round Rock, TX, on February 11, a single accident resulting from ice on a bridge affected 20 vehicles. Mississippi had two deaths attributed to the weather. Several tractor-trailers jackknifed on Interstate 65 in northeast Alabama. [10] Emergency Declaration declared on February 12, 2014(EM-3369) for South Carolina.



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      References

      1. Fort Moultrie - National Park Service Brochure   
      2. Fort Moultrie - National Park Service Brochure   
      3. The National Security Archive,  Chronology of Submarine Contact During the Cuban Missile Crisis - October 1, 1962 - November 14, 1962. [Online] http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB75/subchron.htm
      4. The National Security Archive,  NEWS RELEASE - 1 October 2002 - 5:00 PM EST. [Online] http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/cuba_mis_cri/press3.htm
      5. NATIONAL WATER SUMMARY 1988-89 / Hydrologic Events and Floods and Droughts   [Online - PDF] http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/wsp2375
      6. FEMA: Disaster Declarations for South Carolina (1953-2015)   [Online] https://www.fema.gov/disasters/grid/state-tribal-government/52?field_disaster_type_term_tid_1=9243&=GO
      7. National Weather Service, Raleigh NC: January 25, 2000 Winter Storm   [Online] http://www4.ncsu.edu/~nwsfo/storage/cases/20000125/
      8. National Weather Service, An Overview of the Winter Storm of December 4-5, 2002   [Online] http://www.weather.gov/media/gsp/localdat/cases/2002/4-5Dec_WinterStorm/WinterStorm.pdf
      9. Wikipedia: December 2005 North American ice storm   [Online] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/December_2005_North_American_ice_storm
      10. Wikipedia: February 11-17, 2014 North American winter storm   [Online] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/February_11%E2%80%9317,_2014_North_American_winter_storm
      11. Great Blizzard of 1899   [Online] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Blizzard_of_1899
      12. Wikipedia: Great Appalachian Storm of November 1950   [Online] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Appalachian_Storm_of_November_1950
      13. Wikipedia: November 2006 nor'easter   [Online] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_2006_nor%27easter
      14. Wikipedia: January 2007 North American ice storm   [Online] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_2007_North_American_Ice_Storm

       



      Last Update: May 14, 2015


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