Portales, NM

Fast Facts

Founded: 1909 Population: 12,280 Time Zone: -7
Latitude: 34.18 N Longitude: 103.34 W Altitude: 4,025 ft
Average High: 73.9 Average Low: 42.8 Annual Precipitation: 17.17




Portales, New Mexico, is the county seat of Roosevelt County, New Mexico. The town has a total area of 6.9 square miles and its population in July 2009 was 12,182. Portales is home to over 40 dairies and is a major producer and exporter of dairy products and is the US leading producer of Certified Organic peanut butter. Eastern New Mexico University is located in Portales, NM.



  2010 U.S. Census Demographic Profile about Portales, NM.

  2010 U.S. Census Demographic Profile about NM.

 

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 ◊  History of: Portales, NM
 ◊  History of NM
 ◊  Weather data for Portales, NM
 ◊  Historic Weather Events for NM


History of Portales, NM.

 


References

  1. Wikipedia - Portales, New Mexico   [Online] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portales,_NM
  2. Wikipedia - Portales, New Mexico   [Online] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portales,_NM
  3. Wikipedia - Eastern New Mexico University   [Online] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_New_Mexico_University
  4. Wikipedia - Cannon Air Force Base   [Online] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannon_Air_Force_Base

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State History



Ancient times [3]


  • ca. 40,000-15,000 B.C.; People migrate to North America from Asia at irregular intervals by way of the Bering Land Bridge.
  • 10,000-8000 B.C.; Paleo-Indian culture of seminomadic hunter-foragers living in open countryside and in natural rock shelters.
  • 7,000 BC - 1,000 BC; Archaic Period of Native American hunter-gatherer culture as Indians build temporary dwellings, add shellfish to their diets, and fashion atlatls (spear throwers) to hunt small game.
  • Ancient Native American cultures in the American Southwest and Mexico.

  • Ancestral Puebloan Eras in the American Southwest and Mexico.[Ref]

  •  


    • 9200 BC Clovis Man inhabited the Blackwater area north of Portales until 11,000 years ago.[1]
    • 9000 BC and 8000 BC; Folsom Tradition was a Paleo-Indian culture that is characterized by use of Folsom points as projectile tips and activities known from kill sites where slaughter and butchering of bison took place and Folsom tools were left behind.[2]
    • 7000 BC to 1500 BC; known as the Early Basketmaker Era is characterized by many different cultures that used baskets to gather and store food.
    • 6000 BC to 2000 BC; Desert Culture I - These early people hunted small game; gathered seeds, nuts, and berries.
    • 2000 BC to 500 BC; Desert Culture II - These early people developed gardening skills, made baskets, and milling stones.
    • 1500 BC; Corn arrives from Mexico, agriculture begins.
    • 1500 BC - 50 AD; known as the Early Basketmaker II Era and arises with the cultivation of maize.
    • 300 BC to 1150 AD; The Mogollon culture farmed crops, made pottery, and lived in pit house villages.
    • 1 AD to 500 AD; The Anasazi used the Atlatl (spear thrower), gathered food, and made fine baskets. They lived in a range of structures, including pit houses, cliff dwellings, and pueblos, designed so that they could lift entry ladders during enemy attacks, which provided security.
    • 50 AD to 500 AD; Called the Late Basketmaker II Era. The people of this culture were proficient basket makers and weavers, the lived in pit-houses, and raised maize and squash. In addition to the food they cultivated, they also hunted game and gathered wild foods, such as pinyon nuts.
    • 700 to 1050 AD; Developmental Pueblo - This was the first period in which Ancient Pueblo People began living in pueblo structures. They began an evolution in architecture, artistic expression, and water conservation.
    • 900 AD to 1150 AD; Chaco Canyon is a major center of culture for the Ancient Pueblo People.
    • 950 to 1250; Medieval Warm Period.
    • 1050 AD to 1300 AD; Is the era of the Great Pueblo´s in northwestern New Mexico. This culture is characterized by the building of multistoried pueblo, the use of irrigation, and a laid out road system.
    • 1200 AD to 1500 AD; Pueblo Indians established villages along the Rio Grande and its tributaries.
    • 1300-1850: The Little Ice Age.
    • 1300 AD to 1600 AD; Rio Grande Classic - During this period, many of the sites in northwestern New Mexico are abandoned and the people migrated to new areas of settlement. They also changed their building and pottery style.

     


    1500 - 1699

     


     


    1700 - 1899

     


     


    1900 - 1999

     


     


    2000 - 2009

     


    • 2000, July 25; Valles Caldera National Preserve established.
    • 2005; 11.65% of state's employment was derived directly or indirectly from military spending.
    • 2008; New Mexico had highest poverty rate in US.
    • 2009, March 19; Death penalty abolished in New Mexico.




    For more information about the history of New Mexico, visit the following sites:




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    Portales, NM Weather Information



    Monthly average highs and low temperatures and the average amount of precipitation for Portales, NM.
    Data from Portales Weather station, 1.44 miles from Portales.




    Month Jan. Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Annual
    Avg. High 54.1 ° 59.7 ° 67.7 ° 75.3 ° 83.2 ° 90.6 ° 91.5 ° 89.2 ° 84.2 ° 75 ° 62.3 ° 54.2 ° 73.9 °
    Avg. Low 23 ° 26.5 ° 32.7 ° 40.5 ° 50.6 ° 60 ° 63.9 ° 62.6 ° 55.3 ° 43.4 ° 31.3 ° 23.6 ° 42.8 °
    Mean 38.6 ° 43.1 ° 50.2 ° 57.9 ° 66.9 ° 75.3 ° 77.7 ° 75.9 ° 69.8 ° 59.2 ° 46.8 ° 38.9 ° 58.4 °
    Avg. Prec. 0.5 in 0.4 in 0.52 in 0.78 in 1.63 in 2.57 in 2.63 in 3.2 in 1.95 in 1.59 in 0.73 in 0.67 in 17.17 in




    The climate in Portales, NM, is warm during summer when temperatures tend to be in the 80's and cold during winter when temperatures tend to be in the 30's. The yearly mean is 58.4° Fahrenheit.


    The warmest month of the year is July with an average maximum temperature of 91.50 ° Fahrenheit, while the coldest month of the year is January with an average minimum temperature of 23.00° Fahrenheit.


    Temperature variations between night and day tend to be moderate during summer with a difference that can reach 27° Fahrenheit, and relatively larger during winter with an average difference of 32° Fahrenheit.


    Rainfall is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year. The wettest month of the year is August with an average rainfall of 3.20 inches. The annual average precipitation at Portales is 17.17 inches.[4]




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    Climate Classification:

    The climate in Portales, NM, is classified as cold semi-arid climate (BSk) by the Köppen-Geiger system.

    Cold semi-arid climates (type "BSk") tend to be located in elevated portions of temperate zones, typically bordering a humid continental climate or a Mediterranean climate. They are typically found in continental interiors some distance from large bodies of water. Cold semi-arid climates usually feature warm to hot dry summers, though their summers are typically not quite as hot as those of hot semi-arid climates. Unlike hot semi-arid climates, areas with cold semi-arid climates tend to have cold winters. These areas usually see some snowfall during the winter, though snowfall is much lower than at locations at similar latitudes with more humid climates. Areas featuring cold semi-arid climates tend to have higher elevations than areas with hot semi-arid climates, and tend to feature major temperature swings between day and night, sometimes by as much as 20 °C (36 °F) or more in that time frame. These large diurnal temperature variations are seldom seen in hot semi-arid climates. Cold semi-arid climates at higher latitudes tend to have dry winters and wetter summers, while cold semi-arid climates at lower latitudes tend to have precipitation patterns more akin to subtropical climates, with dry summers, relatively wet winters, and even wetter springs and autumns. Cold semi-arid climates are most commonly found in Asia and North America. However, they can also be found in Northern Africa, South Africa, Europe, sections of South America and sections of interior southern Australia and New Zealand. [Ref]


    Historical Weather data







    NM Notable Severe Weather Events



    “Rainfall in Mississippi averages about 56 inches annually and is distributed unevenly geographically, seasonally, and annually. About 70 percent of the rainfall is received in the winter and early spring. As a result, floods are common during this period. Periods of low streamflow and drought mostly occur in late summer or early fall.”


    “Flooding in Mississippi generally is associated with frontal systems from November through May and with tropical cyclones, including tropical storms and hurricanes, from June through October. The April 1979 flood on the Pearl River is an example of a severe flood associated with a frontal system. This flood had a recurrence interval exceeding 100 years at all stream flow-gag ing stations upstream from Columbia. Floodwaters caused about $344 million in damage in Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia. Tropical storms and hurricanes have produced many large Hoods in the coastal area of the State. The most destructive storm in terms of lives lost and property damage was Hurricane Camille in 1969. Camille was one of the strongest hurricanes ever to strike the North American Continent and resulted in the loss of 139 lives and property damage along the Mississippi gulf coast of $1.3 billion.”


    “Although flooding is frequent and commonly severe, Mississippi is not immune to droughts. The three most extensive droughts were during 1940-44, 1951-57, and 1962-71. Of these, the 1951- 57 drought probably is the most memorable. Recorded flows for many streams in the State during this period were minimums of record. The 1980-82 drought, although not as severe, had a major effect on the large agricultural area of northern and northwestern Mississippi. This drought prompted the passage of water-management legislation in 1985.”[13]













    Droughts [11]




    Drought Severity Classification

     

    Ranges
    Category Description Possible Impacts Palmer Drought Index CPC Soil
    Moisture Model
    (Percentiles)
    USGS Weekly Streamflow
    (Percentiles)
    Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) Objective Short and Long-term Drought Indicator Blends (Percentiles)
    D0 Abnormally
    Dry
    Going into drought: short-term dryness slowing planting, growth of crops or pastures. Coming out of drought: some lingering water deficits;  pastures or crops not fully recovered -1.0 to -1.9 21-30 21-30F -0.5 to -0.7 21-30
    D1 Moderate Drought Some damage to crops, pastures; streams, reservoirs, or wells low, some water shortages developing or imminent; voluntary water-use restrictions requested -2.0 to -2.9 11-20 11-20 -0.8 to -1.2 11-20
    D2 Severe
    Drought
    Crop or pasture losses likely;  water shortages common; water restrictions imposed -3.0 to -3.9 6-10 6-10 -1.3 to -1.5 6-10
    D3 Extreme Drought Major crop/pasture losses;  widespread water shortages or restrictions -4.0 to -4.9 3-5 3-5 -1.6 to -1.9 3-5
    D4 Exceptional Drought Exceptional and widespread crop/pasture losses; shortages of water in reservoirs, streams, and wells creating water emergencies -5.0 or less 0-2 0-2 -2.0 or less 0-2




    • The drought of 1930-34 affected all of Mississippi. The Red Cross expenditures in Mississippi for 1930-31 was $500,000. This was part of a major drought known as the dust bowl that affected twenty-three states across the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys and into the mid-Atlantic region and as far north as Canada.[12]
    • The drought of 1940-44, which affected all of Mississippi. The drought was especially severe in the northern two-thirds of the State.
    • The drought of 1951-57 was widespread throughout the southeastern United States and was severe in all but northwestern and extreme southern Mississippi.
    • The drought of 1962-71 was severe in most of Mississippi.
    • The drought of 1980-82 was moderate and affected only the northern part of the State; however, the drought was significant because of the agricultural losses sustained. The rainfall deficits occurred primarily during the growing season and had a devastating effect on crop production.
    • The drought of 1983-88 was moderate in the east-central and north-central parts of Mississippi and severe in a small area of the northeast part of the state.


    For more information:



    Tornadoes






    Enhanced Fujita Scale
    EF0 EF1 EF2 EF3 EF4 EF5

     



    The following statistics where compiled from "The Tornado Project" for the time period of 1950-05-12 - 2014-12-24.
    Intensity Number Fatalities
    F0 565 0
    F1 795 13
    F2 415 36
    F3 138 90
    F4 27 195
    F5 5 169

     





    Between 1950-02-12 - 2014-12-23 Mississippi has had 2006 tornadoes killing 503 people and injuring 6850 people. The greatest loss of live occurred on March 3, 1966 when a EF 5 touchdown at 6:30 pm killing 58 and injuries: 518.[Ref]



    • 1840, May 7; Great Natchez Tornado was a tornado that hit Natchez, Mississippi killing 317 people. This was the second deadliest single tornado in United States history. The tornado formed southwest of Natchez, MS, and moved northeast along the Mississippi River and into the town of Natchez where it destroyed many buildings. The final death toll was 48 on land and 269 on the river, mostly from the sinking of flatboats. The land death toll of 48 is slightly disputed because it is believed that people died on plantations, and since this was pre-Civil War Mississippi, slave deaths weren't usually counted. The Fujita scale rating of this tornado is almost certainly an F5 but since there was no Fujita scale at the time, this tornado remains uncategorized.
    • 1908, April 24; Southeast tornado outbreak killing 143 people and was the 10th deadliest tornado outbreak in American history. The casualties in Purvis, Mississippi were 83 dead, 340 injured, and 1,935 homeless.
    • 1936, April 5-6; Tupelo-Gainesville tornado outbreak, was an outbreak of seventeen tornadoes that struck the Southeastern United States killing approximately 436 people. An F5 Tornado, slammed into Tupelo, Mississippi at around 8:30 P.M. on April 5. The final death toll was set at 233 and was the fourth deadliest tornado in United States history. On April 6th an F4 slammed into Gainesville, Georgia at around 8:30 A.M. killing 203. A final death toll could not be calculated because many of the buildings that were hit collapsed and caught fire.
    • 1942, March 16; The March 1942 tornado outbreak spawned several violent killer tornadoes from Illinois to Mississippi. The most notable tornado struck areas near Greenwood, MS in the O'Tuckalofa and Baldwin areas. At least 65 people were killed by the first tornado as school buses carrying children were carried and smashed by the storm. Over 500 others were injured.
    • 1953, December 5; The Vicksburg, Mississippi tornado outbreak affected northeastern Louisiana, southeastern Arkansas, and western Mississippi. At least four confirmed tornadoes touched down; one of the tornadoes produced F5 damage on the Fujita scale as it moved through the city of Vicksburg, MS, causing 38 deaths in the area. It remains the fourth deadliest tornado to affect the U.S. state of Mississippi.
    • 1957, April 2-5; The April 1957 Dallas tornado outbreak struck most of the Southern United States from April 2 to April 5, 1957, producing 57 tornadoes. Twenty-one (21) people were killed by this outbreak in four states, 1 in Mississippi, 2 in Georgia, 6 in Oklahoma and 12 in Texas. On April 2, a F3 tornado hit a densely populated area of the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area, killing 10 people and injuring 200 or more. The states affected by the Early-April 1957 tornado outbreak sequence were Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Virginia.
    • 1960, May 4-6; The May 1960 tornado outbreak sequence affected the southeast High Plains, the southern Ozarks, and parts of the Midwestern and Southern United States. There were 71 confirmed tornadoes across 10 states. On May 5, a F5 was traveled 71.8 miles from north of Tecumseh to south of Oakhurst, Oklahoma killing 5. This outbreak affected Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Arkansas, Alabama, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Illinois and Mississippi.[Ref]
    • 1966, March 3; The Candlestick Park tornado struck central Mississippi and western Alabama. The storm is named for the Candlestick Park Shopping Center in the southwest part of Jackson, MS. The storm completely destroyed the shopping center. After passing through Jackson, leaving F5 damage in its wake, the storm left a nearly continual damage path over 200 miles (322 km) long across seven Mississippi and three Alabama counties, causing 58 fatalities and 518 injuries before dissipating northeast of Tuscaloosa, AL.
    • 1971, February 21-22; The Mississippi Valley tornado outbreak of February 1971 struck portions of the Lower Mississippi River Valley and the Southeastern United States. Eight tornadoes struck Mississippi. An F4 moved from south of Fitler, MS to southwest of Middleton, TN causing 58 deaths. A second F4 moved from south of Bovina, MS, to southwest of Lexington, MS, killing 13. Three other deaths were caused by an F3 that struck north of Whitney.
    • 1975, January 10; The Great Storm of 1975 (also known as the Super Bowl Blizzard, Minnesota's Storm of the Century, or the Tornado Outbreak of January, 1975) was an intense storm system that impacted a large portion of the Central and Southeast United States from January 9 to January 12, 1975. The storm produced 45 tornadoes in the Southeast U.S. resulting in 12 fatalities, while later dropping over 2 feet (61 cm) of snow and killing 58 people in the Midwest. This storm remains one of the worst blizzards to ever strike parts of the Midwest, as well as one of the largest January tornado outbreaks on record in the United States A total of 7 tornadoes struck Mississippi on January 10, 1975. An F4 tornado moving from southwest of McComb, MS, to southwest of Pinola, MS, caused 9 deaths and 210 injuries. Tornadoes also struck Alabama (1 death), Arkansas, Florida (1 death), Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana (1 death), North Carolina, Oklahoma and Texas. [6]
    • 1992, Nov. 21-23; The November 1992 tornado outbreak struck large parts of the eastern and Midwestern. The storm spawned 95 tornadoes, 6 of them F4s. There were 26 fatalities and 641 injuries in Alabama, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Ohio, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia. The tornado outbreak began on November 21 with a cluster of 6 tornadoes (ranging from F1 to F4) intensities that struck parts of the Houston, TX, area. There were 12 fatalities and 122 Injuries on Nov. 21, when devastating, long-tracked (128 miles), violent F4 tornado began near Hopewell, MS, and moved northeast and ending west of Sherwood. During this outbreak, there were 15 confirmed tornadoes in MS resulting in 15 deaths.[Ref][S-2]
    • 2001, November 23-24; Arkansas-Mississippi-Alabama tornado outbreak - Super cells formed across much of Arkansas and Mississippi during the evening hours of November 23 up into the early morning hours of November 24 and produced several tornadoes including two F4 tornadoes across Washington and Bolivar Counties in MS at around 2 AM. A second F4 formed in Madison County near the city of Madison at around 5 AM killing 2 (including a newborn baby) and injuring 21. An F2 struck Quitman, Panola and Tate Counties just after 3 AM and killed at least three. These storms severally damaged or destroyed 280 homes, 18 mobile homes and 17 businesses plus other structures. Five people were killed and 95 injured.
    • 2002, November 9 - 11; The Veterans Day Weekend tornado outbreak was a massive, rare outbreak of storms, affecting Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Northeastern Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Far Western Virginia and West Virginia. The stroms occurred from the late afternoon hours on November 9 through the early morning hours on Veterans Day, November 11, 2002. There where a total of eighty-three tornadoes hitting the 17 states. Twelve of the tornadoes killed 36 people in five states. This was the first major outbreak of the 21st century, and is the second biggest in November. In Mississippi there were five F1, one F2 and one F3 tornadoes. Fortunately there where no deaths reported in MS. The F3 tornado caused heavy damage in Columbus, Mississippi and several buildings at the Mississippi University for Women and the Mississippi School for Mathematics and Science were damaged. 55 people were injured.
    • 2005, August 29-31; The Hurricane Katrina tornado outbreak was spawned mostly by the outer bands of Hurricane Katrina (or the remnants thereof). One person was killed and numerous communities suffered damage from central Mississippi to Pennsylvania. Georgia, with 18 tornadoes, was the hardest hit. In total, 62 tornadoes formed in eight states. In Mississippi there were eight F1 and two F2 tornadoes all occurring on August 29.
    • 2007, February 28 - March 1 - The February-March 2007 Tornado Outbreak affected Florida, Kansas, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Illinois, Mississippi, Alabama, Kentucky, Georgia, South Carolina and North Carolina. There were 55 confirmed tornadoes, 3 EF3s and 3 EF4s with 19 fatalities. An EF4 struck the Enterprise, Alabama, high school killing 9 and injuring 50. One person was also killed in Millers Ferry, Alabama by an EF4. 1 person was killed in Caulfield, Missouri. In Georgia there was 1 Death and 4 Injuries in Reynolds, 2 Deaths and 11 Injuries in Americus and 6 Deaths 3 Injuries in the Newton area.[Ref]
    • 2008, January 7-9 - The January 2008 tornado outbreak sequence affected southwest Missouri, northwest Arkansas, northeast Oklahoma, Illinois, Wisconsin, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana and Kentucky. There were 85 confirmed tornadoes, including 8 EF3s. There were 4 fatalities.[Ref]
    • 2008, February 5-6 - The 2008 Super Tuesday Tornado Outbreak affected Tennessee, Kentucky, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Indiana and Texas. There were 86 confirmed tornadoes, 5 EF3s and 5EF4s resulting in 57 fatalities. [Ref]
    • 2008, February 5-6; The 2008 Super Tuesday Tornado Outbreak affected Tennessee, Kentucky, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Indiana and Texas. There were 86 confirmed tornadoes, 5 EF3s and 5EF4s resulting in 57 fatalities.
    • 2008 May 1-2; The May 1-2, tornado outbreak took place across the Southern and Central US. There were 75 tornadoes across Arkansas, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Tennessee and Texas. There were Six deaths, 45 injuries and $ 81.111 million in property damage. There were 3 F3 tornadoes, 2 in Arkansas and one in Missouri. On May 2, a 4 year-old girl and her grandparents were killed, when their house was destroyed in Damascus, Arkansas.[Ref][S-2]
    • 2009, February 10-11; The February 2009 tornado outbreak affected Oklahoma, Arkansas, Texas, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, Tennessee, Indiana, Ohio, Missouri, Kentucky, Michigan, Iowa, Virginia, Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Connecticut and Massachusetts. There were 15 confirmed tornadoes, one EF4. The EF4 struck SE of Grady, Oklahoma killing 8 people.[Ref]
    • 2010, April 22-24; The Tornado outbreak of April 22-25, originally starting in the High Plains on April 22, 2010 and continuing through the Southern Plains on April 23, and the Mississippi and Tennessee Valleys on April 24. The most severe activity was on April 24, particularly in Mississippi. There were a total of 88 tornadoes, 56 EF0, 17 EF1, 9 EF2 4 EF3 and 2 EF4. On April 24, a tornado peaked at EF4 with maximum winds around 170 mph and a maximum width of 1.75 miles. On the south side of Yazoo City, several buildings, including a church and several businesses, were totally destroyed. In Mississippi, there were 10 fatalities and 131 injured. [Ref 1] [Ref 2]
    • 2010, April 30 - May 2; The Tornado outbreak of April 30 - May 2, 2010 tornado outbreak affected the Midwest, U.S. South, including Texas, Colorado, Kansas, Arkansas, Missouri, Tennessee, Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi. There were 60 confirmed tornadoes with 4 EF3s. Five people were killed from the tornadoes, three in Mississippi, one in Pocahontas, Tennessee and one in Scotland, Arkansas. [Ref]
    • 2010, May 10-13; The Tornado outbreak of May 10-13, 2010 affected Kansas, Oklahoma, Missouri and Arkansas. There were 91 confirmed tornadoes, 4 EF3s and 2 EF4s. An EF4 in the Moore, Oklahoma, area, killed two and injured 49. Another EF4 in the Norman, Oklahoma, area killed one and injured 32.[Ref]
    • 2010, Dec, 31 - Jan. 1, 2011; The 2010 New Year's Eve tornado outbreak affected Oklahoma, Arkansas, Missouri, Illinois, Louisiana and Mississippi. There were 36 confirmed tornadoes with 7 EF3s and 9 fatalities. An early morning EF-3 tornado touched down near Stilwell, Oklahoma, and lifted near Tontitown, Arkansas, killing 3 elderly people near Cincinnati, Arkansas. Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, took a direct hit from an EF-3 tornado, destroying 41 houses and damaging 118. Another EF-3 tornado killed 2 elderly women near Rolla, Missouri. An EF-1 tornado killed two women near Lecoma, Missouri. [Ref]
    • 2011, April 4-5; The April 2011 derecho and tornado outbreak affected Arkansas, Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio, Louisiana, Mississippi, Georgia, North Carolina and Maryland. "derecho" is Spanish: meaning straight. There were 46 confirmed tornadoes, 6 EF 2s. There were 9 fatalities. An EF2 in struck a mobile home near Eastman, Georgia, killing one and injuring two others.[Ref]
    • 2011, April 14-16; The April 14-16, 2011 tornado outbreak affected Oklahoma, Arkansas, Kansas, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Missouri, Illinois, North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia. There were 162 confirmed tornadoes, 14 EF3s and 43 fatalities.[Ref]
    • 2011, April 19-24; The April 19-24 tornado outbreak affected the Midwest and Southern United State. There were 130 tornadoes, zero fatalities, 14 injured and $43.864 million in property damage. On April 22, an EF 4 touchdown in the St. Louis, Missouri arera, injuring 5. The states affected were Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, Missouri, Ohio, Ohio, Oklahoma and Texas.[Ref]
    • 2011, April 25-28; The 2011 Super Outbreak affected the Southern, Midwestern, and Northeastern United States. It was the largest, costliest, and one of the deadliest tornado outbreaks ever recorded. The 317 fatalities on April 27, was the highest number of tornado-related fatalities in the United States in a single day since the "Tri-State" outbreak on March 18, 1925 when at least 747 people were killed. The outbreak produced 15 violent (EF4-EF5) tornadoes all on April 27. During the four days, 348 people were killed as a result of the outbreak, which includes 324 tornado-related deaths across six states (Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Mississippi, Tennessee and Virginia) and an additional 24 fatalities caused by other thunderstorm-related events such as straight-line winds, hail, flash flooding or lightning. The 2011 Super Outbreak affected Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Virginia. There were 334 confirmed tornadoes, 22 EF3s, 11 EF4s and 4 EF5s. There were 328 fatalities, 237 in Alabama, 6 in Arkansas, 14 in Georgia, 31 in Mississippi, 32 in Tennessee, and 4 in Virigina. There were 238 fatalities in Alabama, 32 in Tennessee, 31 in Mississippi, 14 in Georgia, 5 in Arkansas and 4 in Virginia. One of the longest-lived tornadoes on record, an EF5 traveled 132 mi (212 km) across northwest Alabama, devastating Hackleburg and other communities, killing 72 people. In total there were 324 deaths and over 3,200 injuries.[Ref]
    • 2011, Nov 14-16; The tornado outbreak of November 14–16, 2011 was a relatively small but deadly tornado outbreak. The outbreak produced a total of 23 tornadoes, 6 EF0, 10 EF1 and 7 EF2. The outbreak affected Alabama, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Mississippi, New York, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas and Virginia. On March 16, an EF2 damaged dozens of homes and businesses in Auburn, Alabama. Damage was also reported on the Auburn University campus, where a veterinary school was damaged and two horses were fatally injured. The tornado crossed into Georgia where damage occurred to numerous homes, the Harris County School Complex, the county's 911 center, and several other structures. Three people were injured. Two deaths were caused by an EF2, east of Linwood, North Carolina and 3 deaths occurred south west of Rock Hill, South Carolina. [Ref]


    For more information:

    Hurricanes / Tropical cyclone




     

    Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale
    Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 Category 5
    Related classifications
    Tropical storm Tropical depression
    Rollover for details




    • 1919, September; The 1919 Florida Keys hurricane formed on east of Guadeloupe. It became a category 4 hurricane on September 9, and passed south of Key West, Florida in the Florida Straits. The system made landfall on the Dry Tortugas at peak intensity with winds of 150 mph (240 km/h) extending as far as 17 mi (28 km) outwards, Crossing the Gulf of Mexico, the system made its final landfall near Baffin Bay, Texas, as a Category 3 hurricane with winds of 115 mph. Winds dropping below hurricane-force on September 15 and then below tropical storm-force the next day. Heavy rains were common across southern Texas, with numerous locations recording 6 inches (150 mm) to 12 inches (300 mm) of rainfall within 24 hours. The storm surge and abnormally high tides resulted in extensive damage. About 23 blocks of homes were destroyed or washed away in Corpus Christi. A total of 284 bodies were recovered in the city and damage totaled at least $20 million. In Matagorda, Palacios, and Port Lavaca, wharves, fish houses, and small boats were significantly impacted. The docks and buildings in Port Aransas were swept away, while school building remained standing. Houses and crops were also flattened in Victoria. At least 310 deaths were reported in Texas, but there may have been as many as 600 fatalities.[Ref]
    • 1947, September; Fort Lauderdale Hurricane flooded a large part of Greater New Orleans with two feet of water shutting down Moisant Field and six feet of water in parts of Jefferson Parish. The storm produced an estimated 100 million US dollars worth of damage to the city.
    • 1960, September; Hurricane Ethel caused only minimal damage in the United States and so the name was not retired. Minor coastal flooding occurred as far eastward as Saint Marks, Florida, and several inches of rain fell in this general area. Because rain storms of this magnitude occur regularly in the Deep South, Ethel caused little flood damage.
    • 1969, August; Hurricane Camille, Category 5, hits the Mississippi coast killing 248 people and causing US $1.5 billion in damage (1969 dollars). Camille was the strongest landfalling tropical cyclone recorded worldwide, and one of only four tropical cyclones worldwide ever to achieve wind speeds of 190 mph.
    • 1979, August; Hurricane Frederic storm surge damage was reported along 80 miles of coastline from Mississippi to Florida.
    • 1985, August; Hurricane Danny, category 1, killed 3 people (2 direct, 1 indirect) and left up to $100 million dollars in damage (1985 USD). Danny also produced an outbreak of tornadoes.
    • 1985, August; Hurricane Elena, made landfall near Biloxi, Mississippi as a Category 3 hurricane. The storm quickly dissipated over land.
    • 1998, September; Hurricane Georges, Category 4, brought a storm surge of up to 8.9 feet (2.7 m) in Biloxi, Mississippi. Hurricane Georges caused $665 million (1998 USD, $779 million 2006 USD) in damage, though no deaths due to well-executed evacuations.
    • 2002, September; Hurricane Isidore, Category 3, produced a storm surge of 8.3 feet (2.5 m) at Rigoletes, Louisiana and at Gulfport Harbor, Mississippi. Hurricane Isidore brought widespread heavy rainfall from the central Gulf coast into the Ohio Valley, with a maximum of 15.97 inches (406 mm) at Metarie, Louisiana.
    • 2002, September; Hurricane Lili, Category 4, was the deadliest and costliest hurricane of the 2002 Atlantic hurricane season. Lili's outer rainbands dumped large amounts of rain and brought tropical storm force wind gusts to Mississippi. Pascagoula, Mississippi recorded wind gusts of 41 mph (66 km/h), and Picayune, Mississippi received 4.14 inches (105 mm) of rainfall.
    • 2005, July; Hurricane Dennis, Category 4, was both the earliest major hurricane and the strongest Atlantic hurricane ever to form before August. The hurricane formed in the Gulf of Mexico on July 4, 2005 and dissipated on July 10, 2005. It affected Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica, Cuba, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, Tennessee and the Ohio Valley regions. The hurricane made landfall in the US at Santa Rosa Island, between Pensacola, Florida, and Navarre Beach, Florida, at 2:25 pm CDT (1925 UTC) on July 10. There were a total of 89 fatalities due to the storm, 14 in Florida and 1 in Georgia. [Ref]
    • 2005, September; Hurricane Rita, category 5, was the fourth-most intense Atlantic hurricane ever recorded and the most intense tropical cyclone ever observed in the Gulf of Mexico. Several tornadoes from Rita's outer bands affected MS. At least 40 homes and an industrial plant were damaged. One person was killed by a tornado in Humphreys County in central Mississippi. One death was reported in Wilkinson County, although it has not been confirmed if it was storm-related.
    • 2005, August 29 - Hurricane Katrina, category 3, causes great destruction across the entire 90 miles (140 km) of Mississippi Gulf coast from Louisiana to Alabama. Hurricane Katrina was the costliest hurricane, as well as one of the five deadliest, in the history of the United States.
    • 2008, August; Hurricane Gustav made landfall in the United States near Cocodrie, Louisiana coast as a strong Category 2 hurricane – 1 mph below Category 3.


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    Floods





    USGC - Flood Mark
    • 1927, April - May; Flood of 1927 - Rain begain in the summer of 1926. On Christmas Day of 1926, the Cumberland River at Nashville, TN, exceeded 56.2 feet, a record high levellevel. By May 1927, the Mississippi River below Memphis, Tennessee, reached a width of 60 miles. There were 246 fatalities due to the flood and over $400 million in damages. The flood affected Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, Texas, Oklahoma and Kansas. Arkansas had 14% of its territory covered by floodwaters.[Ref]
    • 1969, August; The Gulf Coast of Mississippi and Louisiana are flooded by the strom surge from Hurricane Camille. 259 deaths are reported and over 1.4 billion dollars in damages (not adjusted for inflation).[7]
    • 1983, May; Excessive rain causes flooding in central and northeast Mississippi. One death is reported and over 500 million dollars in damages (not adjusted for inflation).[8]
    • 2005, August; a massive storm surge caused by Hurricane Katrina destroyes most structures along the coast including floating casinos, and preliminary figures show that the storm surge was higher than in Hurricane Camille of 1969.[9]


    For more information:



    Winter Storms[14]




     

    Regional snowfall index (RSI)[Ref-1] [Ref-2]

    Category RSI Value Description
    1 1—2.999 Notable
    2 3—5.99 Significant
    3 6—9.99 Major
    4 10—17.99 Crippling
    5 18.0+ Extreme

     


    • 1963, Dec 31, to Jan 1, 1964: New Year's Eve 1963 snowstorm - Southeast Louisiana saw 4 to 8 inches (10 to 20 cm), mainly east of the Mississippi river, with New Orleans, Louisiana measuring 4.5 inches (11 cm). Damages totalled at least US $ 50,000 (1963 dollars). A stripe of 15 to 17 inches (38 to 43 cm) of snow fell across portions of Mississippi, northwest Alabama, and into Tennessee, with lesser amounts falling on either side of this axis.
    • 1994, Feb 9 - 14; Due to freezing rain and sleet a Major Disaster Declaration declared on February 18, 1994(DR-1009).
    • 1998, Dec. 23 - 26; Due to ice and freezing rain a Major Disaster Declaration declared on January 25, 1999 (DR-1265). The counties affected were Attala, Bolivar, Calhoun, Carroll, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Clay, Grenada, Humphreys, Issaquena, Itawamba, Kemper, Leake, Lee, Leflore, Lowndes, Monroe, Montgomery, Neshoba, Noxubee, Oktibbeha, Pontotoc, Prentiss, Sharkey, Sunflower, Tallahatchie, Tishomingo, Union, Warren, Washington, Webster, Winston, Yalobusha and Yazoo.
    • 2007, Feb. 12-15; The February 2007 North America Winter Storm was a massive winter storm that began on Feb. 12, 2007 and lasted until on Feb. 14, producing heavy snowfalls across the Midwestern U.S. from Nebraska to Ohio and similar conditions across parts of the northeastern U.S., and into Canada and tornadoes across the southern US. Significant sleet and freezing rain fell across the southern Ohio Valley and affected portions of the east coast of the United States, including the cities of Boston, Baltimore, Washington, D.C., New York City and Philadelphia. The southern portion of the storm produced severe thunderstorms with numerous tornadoes reported. One tornado hit a subdivision of New Orleans. In total, this storm system was responsible for 37 deaths across 13 U.S. states and Canadian provinces of New Brunswick, Ontario and Quebec. On Tuesday, February 13, 2007, the storm produced 7 EF 0, 9 EF1 and 3 EF2 tornadoes affecting Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina. NOAA classified the storm as a Category 3, “Major” storm.[Ref]
    • 2007, April 13-17; The Spring Nor'easter of 2007 was a nor'easter that affected mainly the eastern parts of North America. The combined effects of high winds, heavy rainfall, and high tides led to flooding, storm damages, power outages, and evacuations, and disrupted traffic and commerce and resulted min at least 13 fatalities. There were 36 confirmed tornadoes in the Southern States, 15 EF0, 16 EF1, 4 EF2 and 1 EF3 in Sumter County, SC. Tornadoes struck Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, South Carolina and Texas.[Ref]
    • 2010, Feb 1-6; The February 5-6, 2010 North American blizzard formed on February 1, 2010 and moved ashore on the West Coast near Baja California Sur, Mexico, and moved north east. The storm moved off the east coast on Feb 6, 2010. The storm brought a mixture of snow, sleet, freezing rain, and flooding, in Mexico the heavy rains resulting in at least 15 fatalities. The storm affected Arizona and New Mexico from February 1 to 4 with up to 1 foot of snow in the mountains east of Albuquerque, New Mexico. On February 4, Oklahoma and northern Texas saw rain and snow, with severe thunderstorms further south. Feb. 4 brought widespread rainfall totals of 1 inch to 4 inches of rain were reported in portions of Central and Southern Mississippi. Jackson, MS, broke a daily rainfall record with 2.51 inches (6.4 cm) of rainfall. On Friday Feb, 5., power outages effecting about 40,000 customers, were reported in the North Carolina's mountain counties as the winter storm brought a mixture of snow, sleet and freezing rain to much of the state. A drenching rain fell early Friday in the Charlotte, NC, and in Atlanta, GA, which transitioned to a few inches of snow later in the day, while several inches of snow accumulated farther north. To the north, Howard, MD, received 38.3 inches of snow, while Washington Dulles International Airport measured 32.9 inches. Fatalities occurred in to Mexico, New Mexico, Virginia, Pennsylvania and Maryland. The storm was classed as a Category 3 (“major”) nor'easter and severe weather event. [Ref]
    • 2010, April 22-24; The Tornado outbreak of April 22-25, originally starting in the High Plains on April 22, 2010 and continuing through the Southern Plains on April 23, and the Mississippi and Tennessee Valleys on April 24. The most severe activity was on April 24, particularly in Mississippi. There were a total of 88 tornadoes, 56 EF0, 17 EF1, 9 EF2 4 EF3 and 2 EF4. On April 24, a tornado peaked at EF4 with maximum winds around 170 mph and a maximum width of 1.75 miles. On the south side of Yazoo City, several buildings, including a church and several businesses, were totally destroyed. In Mississippi, there were 10 fatalities and 131 injured. [Ref 1] [Ref 2]
    • 2011, Jan 8 - 13; The January 8-13, 2011 North American Blizzard was a major nor'easter, winter storm, and a New England blizzard. The storm also affected the Southeastern regions of the United States. Jan 8 through Jan 10, the storm dropped snow and ice across Eastern Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, Georgia, South Carolina and North Carolina. Savoy, Massachusetts reported 40.5" of snow. Portions of Connecticut received 20 to 30" of snow.[Ref]
    • 2012, Dec 25-26; The December 25-28, 2012 North American storm complex was a massive Extratropical cyclone, Blizzard and Tornado outbreak across the southern and eastern United States. On Christmas Day 2012, 30 confirmed tornadoes occurred in Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas. Two of the tornadoes were rated as EF3. On Dec 26, an EF1 tornado touchdown north of Beaufort, NC. This tornado outbreak occurred in conjunction with a much larger winter storm event that brought blizzard conditions to much of the interior United States. There were 16 fatalities as a result of the related blizzard, and thousands were without power.[Ref1]
    • 2014, Jan. 27-31; The January 2014 Gulf Coast winter storm was a winter storm that impacted the eastern and southeastern United States, as well as Mexico. Freezing rain and sleet were recorded in cites along the Gulf Coast including Houston, TX, New Orleans, LA, Mobile, AL and Tallahassee, FL. On Jan 27, warnings were issued for Atlanta'a south metro area, while the central region (from east to west) was placed under a winter weather advisory. At 3:38 AM, on Jan. 28, the winter storm warning was expanded northward. A tweet issued by the NWSFO in Peachtree City at 3:08 pm and repeated on the local news read: “Winter precip will make travel risky across GA midday Tues into Weds. Not a bad idea to stay off the roads if you're able!”. Many believed that the storm would not occur until midday and planned accordingly. The NWSFO was correct in its forecast, but the roads became slippery faster than anyone anticipated. Thinking they would have time to get home before the road condition deteriorated, many business and school systems planned to work a half day. The results was a higher than normal volume of traffic on the Atlanta roads and with the slippery conditions and hilly terrain in Atlanta, traffic stooped. Many people were not able to reach their homes and had to find shelter where they could. Coastal South Carolina got some of the freezing rain that closed bridges around Charleston, SC. The Outer Banks of North Carolina and the Tidewater region of southeastern Virginia received significant snows.[Ref]
    • 2014, Feb. 11-17; The North American winter storm of 2014, was a snow and ice storm that affected the American South and East Coast. Damage was estimated at $15 million+ and there were 22 fatalities. Four people died in traffic accidents in Texas due to ice, and in in Round Rock, TX on February 11, a single accident resulting from ice on a bridge affected 20 vehicles. Mississippi had two deaths attributed to the weather. Several tractor-trailers jackknifed on Interstate 65 in northeast Alabama.[Ref]
    • 2014, Dec 10-15; The December 2014 North American storm complex formed to the northwest of Midway Island on November 30, 2014. It dissipated on December 28, 2014. The storm hit the West Coast of the United States, beginning on the night of December 10, 2014. On December 11, the storm approached California, triggering mudslides, floods, and power outages across the state. At least 24 homes in Camarillo Springs were damaged by a rockslide while over 90,000 customers were without power. In the San Francisco Bay Area, 150,000 households were without power. The storm produced 4 EF0 tornadoes, one striking South Los Angeles, damaging at least five homes, and cut the power to over 1,000 home. Between Dec 14-15, the storm spawned 3 more EF0 tornadoes over Kansas and Mississippi. There were two fatalities in Oregon, killed by falling trees.[Ref]


    For more information:


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    References

    1. Wikipedia - Portales, New Mexico   [Online] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portales,_NM
    2. Wikipedia - Folsom tradition   [Online] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Folsom_Tradition
    3. Wikipedia - History of New Mexico   [Online] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_New_Mexico
    4. IDcide - Portales, NM   [Online] http://www.idcide.com/weather/nm/portales.htm


    Last Update: October 15, 2017


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